ISSN 0964-5659

LONGEVITY REPORT 98

The Newsletter of Longevity Books, West Towan House, Porthtowan, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8AX

Click box below for the Life Extension Foundation

Louis Epstein's tables of the oldest people.
Click here to track emerging epidemics.
Exterminate the The Norwalk "Winter Vomiting" Virus.
Click here to read the web site
Unraveling the Secrets of Human Longevity
by Dr. Leonid Gavrilov, Ph. D. and Dr. Natalia Gavrilova, Ph. D.

Join our mailing list to discuss articles and for news of web postings!
To e-mail: Click here.

Join Longevity Report's discussion list
Powered by groups.yahoo.com
I use and recommend this system which bounces spam and viruses using your own and web based blacklists.
You can have a free month's trial. Click box below.


Search this site

Bringing People back to Life from the Past Olaf Henny
Experiments with Mice
by Russian Doctor Kostenko
Parhatsathid Napatalung
As Others See Us Eddie Harriman
Utopia as a Technology of the Future Roger L. Bagula
The Second International Conference on Longevity
Now Available on DVD
-
Fly Longevity Experiments Douglas Skrecky
Welcome New Readers John de Rivaz
Excerpts from Yahoo Group:
Horizon, Resveratrol
Mike Price,
John de Rivaz

Volume 17 no 98. First published October 2004. ISSN 0964-5659.


Bringing People back to Life from the Past

by Olaf Henny < olafh@shaw.ca >

I have a fantasy to bring three men back to life, who were instrumental in creating the automobile...

Nicolaus August Otto who in 1876 invented an effective gas motor engine.

Karl Benz was the German mechanical engineer who designed and in 1885 built the world's first practical automobile (3 -wheeled) to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.

Gottlieb Daimler, who1886, took a stagecoach (made by Wilhelm Wimpff & Sohn) and adapted it to hold his engine, thereby designing the world's first four- wheeled automobile, powered by a V2 four stroke engine.

... and take them to a busy intersection in a large city. I am sure the would be in awe of the monster they have given birth to.

I would love to bring back to life Orville and Wilbur Wright and to repeat Wilbur's trip to Paris, but this time we would not send Orville to Virginia or sail by ship, but fly with both of them from JFK Airport in New York to Charles de Gaulle in Paris in a jumbo jet with 400 other passengers. I am sure, they would be fascinated.

But most of all I would love to bring my dad back, who died in 1962 in East Germany, where aside from antenna fed TV and nylon stockings the consumer oriented technology was essentially still pre WWII, and show him all the wonders of our modern technology, the "open sesame" of my garage door opener would have to appear like magic to him. During the last few weeks, as an exercise I have imagined him beside me during all the simple acts I perform daily and envisaged, how he would perceive the world around us. Simple things, the disposable plastic shopping bag, its lightness and strength; shoes, which do not push nails into your foot as the heals of the shoe wear down. Satellite TV, which lets us observe events on the opposite side of the globe, as they happen; an ATM machine which allows us to instantly withdraw money from an account on another continent; the microwave and remote sensing devises, which open doors for us as we approach; the car, that beeps obnoxiously, when I do not fasten my seatbelt and gets outright hysteric, when I open the door with the key in the ignition. The enormous amount of information on our fingertips and how little we learn from it would flabbergast him. Almost every step we take together offers something new and exiting to him. Our liberal attitude toward sex and our uptight code of political correctness, which puts 90% of all good jokes out of bounds would seem contradictory to him. He would find the sudden crumbling of the Soviet empire astounding and the drawing together of the 25 nations in the EU exhilarating.

It is incredible how fundamentally our world has changed in those 42 years and the above exercise gives us an indication, how much we will be "babes in the woods", when revived out of cryo- suspension. If you have a loved one, who died 3-5 decades ago, bring him/her back in your mind and observe, how s/he would perceive the modern world, as s/he "accompanies" you in your daily routine.


Experiments with Mice

by Russian Doctor Kostenko

by Parhatsathid Napatalung < parhat@yahoo.com >

Dr. Kostenko has had surprising results that support Dr. Volkov's viewpoints. In discussing his experiments with one-year-old mice, Dr. Kostenko notes, "I was periodically making the acid washing of the mice ... in the medium enriched with CO2 (Carbon Dioxide, also known as Carbonic Acid). The condition of their eyes, hair has improved, improvement of the DNA condition in comparison with the control group, i.e., the quantity of defects accumulating with age have decreased. The gain of average life duration was 131 percent, and four mice are in good health for the fifth year, that corresponds to 220 human years approximately."

Dr. Kostenko also conducted the experiments on himself. He asserts that he has recovered from chronic illnesses, that he looks younger, and that he has improved his physical parameters. Dr. Volkov has a very simple explanation for Dr. Kostenko's surprising results. He believes that "the acidation of [a] living organism with CO2 promotes the carbonic acid production by an organism. Therefore, blood acidation by a carbon dioxide results in the filling up of the hydrogen deficiency of an organism - And in the prolongation of life!"

Additional support for Dr. Volkov's theory comes from the work of Jonathan V. Wright, M.D., who is the Medical Director at Tahoma Clinic in Kent, Washington. Dr. Wright says, "...when you get past 35, 40, 45, and start to develop indigestion, it's highly likely that the indigestion is due to a weaker stomach, not a stronger one, a stomach making less acid, less pepsin." He notes that since 1976 he has used "a commercially available, extremely precise, research-verified procedure" to literally check the stomach acid production of thousands of people, who had complaints of "heartburn" and indigestion. He found that the majority of people did indeed have under acidity in their stomachs.

What makes your body alkaline or acidic?

In my opinion, your body's pH is determined by two things:

1) What you put into your body (food, beverages, drugs, etc.) and

2) What you eliminate or withhold inside your body (removal or harboring of acidic waste).

I personally believe Dr. Volkov's claims, and am presently beginning research to verify the hypothesis that increased acid in the gut will help to restore and maintain the body's natural pH balance through a process called homeostasis. I am of the opinion that at birth the pH of our gut is generally around 1.0. As we get older, our gut pH may rise to 2.0 or more. This is an astronomical difference and at this higher level the stomach may have trouble breaking down the foods we consume.

I am working to prove that disease comes from the same root cause-an increase of the pH of the gut, which can cause a massive overload of undigested food to build up in the intestines, eventually turning into putrefied acid waste (toxins). The body would then have no choice but to store this acid waste in its own tissues and stored fat, thus creating a more friendly environment for disease.

I want to prove that the countless names attached to illnesses do not really matter. What does matter is that they all come from the same root cause- too much tissue acid waste in the body!

Of course it is also possibility to easily replicate Max Odens study by just watching improvement in rat's fur after 2-3 weeks through using brewer's yeast extracted from chloroform saturated water. We need not wait that long to see how it lives but to notice just health improvement in rats. There is a cell food DNA/RNA product given sublingually or transdermally after mixing with DMSO that we can easily test on my aging dogs.

Douglas Skrecky Comments:

I could not find anything on about this on Pubmed, though perhaps this not is surprising with Russian research. I would be quite sceptical about this, as large percentage increases (200%+) in lifespan have been obtained in short lived rodent strains in some studies, purely by inhibiting the disease which renders the rodent short lived in the first place. I've tried acids on flies, and citric acid has been a standard additive to fly food for quite some time, in my fly longevity experiments.


As Others See Us
Eddie Harriman
New Hope International Review - http ://www.nhi.clara.net/online.htm
NHI Review, 20 Werneth Avenue, Gee Cross, Hyde, Cheshire SK14 5NL

Longevity Report #97

This cryonics newsletter informs and updates its readers for information only, under the right to free speech. There are articles Libertarianism, Cryonics, Religion - Ideas That Don't Work - Millionaires Survival Instinct -- Extinct - and others.

To the enthusiast, supporters, purveyors of the aspirations for long life, this newsletter is a commendable enterprise. But to the layman it's fairly heavy going. Whether or not an individual would want his or her own body preserved from decay after death and then possibly brought back to life at some stage in the future is either a fascinating or horrific proposition depending if you are in favour of, or against, such instigation.

Anyway, who is to know if future rulers of the planet -- currently called Earth -- would allow resuscitation; or, if they do, to what purpose re-animated ancestors would be used? On the benevolent side, a future generation which could actually talk to a man or woman who had lived, say, 200 years ago would then be able to write 'history' as it is 'lived'. I'd like to talk poetry with Percy Shelley; chew the fat with Tom Paine. The list for anyone is endless. Would it be a planet without war? But what about the other side of the coin? A man or woman who is woken up would have no idea, literally, what is at stake. Would they be able to 'talk' as we understand it now and understand each other? Whatever you say might be treasonable, or you may be deemed as a worthless specimen: an unintelligent savage with nothing to contribute whatsoever to the present order of things, not even to science, medicine, history or social values, as we know them now, but not in the future, then. Would it be a planet of total, global warfare?

The Longevity Report certainly gets you thinking, and any interested reader or enthusiast for or against long life should get hold of a copy.


Utopia as a Technology of the Future
by Roger L. Bagula < tftn@earthlink.net > © 2 Aug 2004

Suppose that a science of mathematical prediction of the future were to exist as Isaac Asimov predicted in his Foundation trilogy more than half a century ago (called psychohistory)? B. F. Skinner recognised in his book Walden II that such an understanding would lead to a technology: a design engineering of social systems. People like Jane Jacobs have become famous in recent years for programs of urban planning based on understanding of individual motivations and needs. The development of cities and road systems have been recently studies as being like colonies of coral by Michael Batty. Per Bak tells us that biological and physical systems share an likeness to sand piles in that they have universal principles of self-organization. We are on the verge of a true science in the terms of complexity and chaos of social and cultural history based on mathematical principles or laws. Just as Newton's laws of gravitation allowed men to calculate their charges and loads as a technology that led to the Napolonic accuracy where his gunner hit the nose of the Egyptian Sphinx, so a science which can predict the future behaviour of civilisations can also be used to defuse the forces that cause their fall.

Utopias are not a new concept: Plato started this line of thought with his Republic. Sir Thomas Moore gave us the name in his classic. Looking Backward by Bellamy and Huxley's Brave New World gave us more modern versions. Colonies of idealistic thinkers like those in Oneida gave us concepts like plural marriage and feminine equality. We see religious groups like the Hutterites as strange social 'cults' that are dreaded. One thing that the B. F. Skinner approach gave us was a modern scientific version of 1984 where 'freewill' is bent to the good of society. The concept of a 'soma' based social structure where a drug induced tranquillity made the society crime free seems repugnant to most of us in modern America.

A truly stable Utopian society would be free to advance scientifically and culturally on an unlimited scale ( as long as the science wasn't culturally destabilising). Since the great depression in the United States a federal banking committee has set interest rates. The interest rate has been seen to be the 'critical' loading factor in market collapses and it's control has avoided the worse fluctuations of the free enterprise financial system. It has been one of the first modern technologies of social control. It was this social variability that the Soviet Communist economists had attacked early in the last century as the major fault of free enterprise. Other have said that media 'mind control' of a consumer based economy was just as dangerous where TV send the herds to buy their brand products (people buy the name brand beer without tasting it?). What place do and educated and sophisticated people have in an externally controlled culture? Can we sacrifice our individual identity and freedom for the promise of stability, long life ( maybe unlimited lifetimes) and scientific advance? This kind of problem has to be faced by a society where measurement of psychological variables becomes more accurate each day. The creativity of much genius comes with a price of mood variation that has been sometimes fatal, but putting such people on tranquillisers also dulls them to a point where their great discoveries are gone.

Facing the music of an aging culture is hard for many intellectuals. In many cases they have become part of the institutions by 'buying in' A very good resent example is in the area of prehistoric anthropology in the Clovis first doctrine. It was theorised that the first people to north and South America came during the last ice age following herds of Mammoths from Siberia about 13,000 years ago. It became a part of texts and history books as much as 50 years ago. About 40 years ago evidence of earlier people came from carbon 14 measurements on fossils found in California. For those last 40 years until the evidence was just too overwhelming to ignore, that doctrine was 'enforced' by the professors in charge (papers weren't published, data was falsified, fossils were hidden in back rooms of museums, etc. ). The 'buying in' thing is a part of modern scholarship necessary for many to get their life credentials: it has nothing to do with fact or truth, but has very much to do with stable social structures. Current events where trusted leaders openly lie to the whole world as a pretext for killing large numbers of people show us that we are not living in an as honest or open a society as we have been led to believe.

Having a technology doesn't mean that we have to use it. In DNA research it has become possible to modify existing species by using the new technology. There is a genetically engineered tomato, a corn, a wheat and a rice. We could, for instance, evolve ourselves to some better genetic state. Suppose that we could add the gene for manufacturing vitamin C to the human genes? Should we use such technology or make the choice with the consequences of not using it? As you can see modern science has also brought what can only be called a new level of 'ethical' problems. because we can do it, does it mean we should? The idea of cultural/ civilisation engineering is very much like this: if we can create a Utopian society and maintain it's stability, should we? Or should we suffer 'dark ages' as stock market depressions were once suffered?

One of the major 'loading factors' in a culture is it's faith in it's leaders which is a clearly measurable variable. Election polls are very much trusted by our candidates in our American elections. I once read about a Greek who was approached on the street in an election time and told to vote against himself because he had some false fault that was being passed around. He did lose the election, too. Such 'popularity' has nothing to do with the actual virtues of the situation as the German rise of Hitler shows. People in a civilisation vote on it everyday by their actions. In a strong civilisation the people feel good about themselves and their leaders. In a stable Utopian society we would find ourselves with a Stalin like propaganda machine propping up men who might actually be monsters in real life? And with unlimited life spans the our technology promises in the near future, they might stay in power much longer as well. A tyranny of technology and science is no better than any other such tyranny, is it? Would it be an wiser or more virtuous? Can one say that a robot would logically make a better judge of rightness than a human jury? Science tends to divorce itself from human sensibilities: medical doctors cut up dead people to learn anatomy and are thought weak if they aren't hard about it. So a technology of a Utopian stabilised society where mathematical laws are used to judge how actions are carried out to 'eliminate' threats to that stability, might turn out in several thousand years to be a tyranny worse than in Hitler had won World War II! I don't say that 'freedom' is all important, but I think we must work to preserve the rights of the individual over that of a state bent on an artifici0al stability.

In contrast I think that the study of psychohistory of the Asimov kind is necessary. I think Utopia is a universal concept or ideal and that in such a 'real' Utopia as mankind may find, freedom of thought and expression will be encouraged as a cultural strength. Behaviourist models that rob the individual to pay the culture are in the end wrong and are a new sort of problem. A Walden where a minimal control of social and cultural variables allows freedom of choice is an individualistic society that can be made stable without taking away human rights.


The Second International Conference on Longevity
Now Available on DVD.
Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, Queensland, Australia.
"The most comprehensive look ever at the vital issues related to ageing"

The Second International Conference on Longevity brought together medical consultants and practitioners, allied health professionals, scientists and policy makers for a global perspective on the issues confronting them in the areas of quality and length of life, and new research applicable to our ageing population.

The Conference Programme was developed by the International Research Centre for Healthy Ageing and Longevity Ltd. More on: http://www.longevity-international.com/ICL05/index.htm

"The Second World Assembly on Ageing pointed to the need to ensure enhanced and focussed international cooperation as an important prerequisite for the successful action on ageing in the twenty-first century. The Inaugural International Conference on Longevity in Sydney and the launch of the International Research Centre for Healthy Ageing and Longevity are two important steps towards the development of strong bonds of cooperation between researchers and practitioners addressing the issues of healthy ageing and longevity."

- Dr. Alexandre Sidorenko. Chief, United Nations Focal Point on Ageing, Division for Social Policy & Development, New York, NY, USA. Member, International Advisory Council of the International Research Centre for Healthy Ageing and Longevity Ltd.

The International Research Centre for Healthy Ageing and Longevity Ltd is a non-profit charitable corporate entity.

DVD04_01

Living Longer Code

Dr. Alexandre Sidorenko

Dr. Alexandre Kalache

Prof. Leonid Gavrilov

DVD04_02

Cellular Ageing and Clinical Interventions

Dr. Michael Fossel

Prof. Suresh Rattan

Dr. Richard Faragher

Mr. Barry Flanary

DVD04_03

Mental Health & Longevity

Prof. Graham Burrows

Prof. Rudy Tanzi

DVD04_04

Anti-Ageing Medicine: The Hype and the Reality

(including the 2004 Annual 'Silver Fleece' awards)

Prof. S. Jay Olshansky

Prof. Bruce Carnes

Prof. Leonard Hayflick

Prof. Thomas Perls

DVD04_05

Longevity Strategies

Dr. Richard Mollard

Dr. Donald Ingram

Dr. George Roth

DVD04_06

Achieving Optimal Nutrition Throughout

the Human Lifespan

Dr. Mohsen Meydani

Dr. James Joseph

DVD04_07

The Environment, Human Health,

and Longevity of the Planet

Dr. Zorba Paster

Mr. R. Carlos Nakai

Dr. David Suzuki

DVD04_08

Healthy Ageing: Research, Policy and Action

Prof. Helen Bartlett

What Does Human Ageing Really Mean and

How can we do it right in the 21st Century?

Prof. Gary Andrews

Launch of the International Research Centre

for Healthy Ageing and Longevity

Prof. Gary Andrews

Dr. Alexandre Sidorenko

Prof John McCallum

DVD04_09

Ageing Research

Prof. Anthony Linane

Dr. Natalia Gavrilova

DVD04_10

Musculoskeletal Health

Prof. Marc Cohen

Mr. Paul Cribb

Dr. Avan Sayer

DVD04_11

Breakthroughs in Anti-Ageing Dermatology

Dr. Rodney Sinclair

Mr. Haru Naito

The Ageing Eye

Dr. Paul Beaumont

DVD04_12

Cardiovascular Disease

Prof. Judith Whitworth

Dr. Warwick Greville

Mr. Mike Curley

Dr. Ross Walker

DVD04_13

Biomedical and Biological Advances in Geriatric Medicine

Prof. David Le Couteur

Prof. Robert Cumming

A/Prof. Jillian Kril

Dr. Vasi Naganathan

Dr. Arthur Everitt

DVD04_14

Mental Health and Longevity 2

Prof. Avni Sali

Dr. Andrew Francis

Prof. Marc Cohen

DVD04_15

Attitude, Lifestyle and Community Support

Prof. John McCallum

Prof. Julie Byles

A/Prof. James Curran

DVD04_16

Ageing and the Endocrine System

Dr. Richard Reid

Mr. Bill Anton

Prof. Kerryn Phelps

DVD04_17

Healthy Ageing in Clinical Practice

Dr. Eugen Molodysky

Dr. Michael Fossel

Dr. Michael Elstein

Mr. Mike Curley

These DVDS are for sale at $36.00 (+GST in Australia, add $3.60 per DVD) each.

Or the entire set for AU$280.00 (AU$28.00 GST applies for orders within Australia).

Postage & Handling are extra depending on destination. Contact for further details:

Holistic Health & Longevity PTY. LTD http://www.longevity-international.com/ICL05/index.htm

P.O. Box A2261 Sydney South

NSW 1235 Australia. FAX: +61 2 6680 9643.


Fly Longevity Experiments 129-152
Doug Skrecky <oberon@vcn.bc.ca>

This is the 129th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 20.8 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 130 days.

Here I retest French lentils. Although maximum lifespan was again increased, I'm still not convinced t this was not due to chance.

The most intriguing result this time was not something that would show up in the survival statistics. Flies fed New Roots brand of sterols & sterolins showed an unusual ability to continue flying at advanced ages. I'd been recording flying ability on a four point scale for quite some time, but had never mentioned this before since no note worthy results had showed up, before this run. At 90 days of age all sterol fed flies were still capable of flight, as defined by being able to remain aloft for the full width of the milk bottle (3 inches). By comparison none of control flies could fly at 83 days of age. Even at 99 days of age, some sterol fed flies could still take flight, which is an anomaly I have never before observed. Run #137 takes a second look at sterols, both by themselves, as well as in combination with some other supplements, to try to counter the negative effect sterols apparently have on early mortality.

Run #129

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

25 31 37 46 58 69 78 83 90 99 110 119
control one 84 80 68 48 36 28 16 12 8 0 - -
control two 83 78 78 44 39 26 9 4 4 0 - -
coffee tsp 71 71 62 48 24 14 5 5 5 0 - -
coffee 2 tsp 100 87 80 67 60 33 27 20 13 13 0 -
lentils, French 5% 78 70 65 57 30 17 9 9 4 0 - -
lentils, French 20% 60 60 47 27 27 13 7 7 7 7 7 0
sterols 108 mg 53 53 53 53 47 42 42 42 26 16 0 -
sterols 432 mg 65 65 65 60 50 40 35 35 35 15 0 -
tea leaf, green, decaf tsp 75 75 75 58 58 42 33 17 0 - - -
tea leaf, green, decaf 2 tsp 67 56 56 56 33 11 11 11 0 - - -
tea leaf, Orange Pekoe tsp 100 100 90 90 70 60 40 30 10 10 0 -
tea leaf, Orange Pekoe 2 tsp 100 67 58 50 25 25 17 0 - - - -

This is the 130th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 20.2 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 137 days.

Lipoic acid by itself was something of a disappointment previously.

This time a rather more expensive R(+) isomer was tested. One is reminded of the saying "throwing good money after bad".

Aspirin had provided contradictory results in published experiments. This difference had been attributed to the confounding effect of pathogens in an experiment where positive effects were detected. Since I regard pathogens as being a major factor in fly mortality in my own "homebrew" experiments, there seemed to be a possibility of aspirin might be helpful.

The present results indicate that this may indeed be so, provided the dosage is low enough to avoid toxicity.

Run #130

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

6 12 18 27 39 50 59 64 71 80 91 100
control one 100 81 77 71 45 36 23 13 10 7 0 -
control two 96 96 80 72 64 52 28 12 0 - - -
artichoke, cooked 5% 98 81 81 68 56 34 15 12 2 0 - -
artichoke, cooked 20% 100 78 63 53 41 28 19 19 6 3 3 0
artichoke powder 405 mg 100 90 81 66 66 54 29 15 10 2 0 -
artichoke powder 1620 mg 97 91 81 63 56 38 31 13 13 13 6 0
aspirin 81 mg 92 83 81 70 70 62 57 40 34 17 2 0
aspirin 325 mg 77 50 8 4 0 - - - - - - -
BHA 88 mg 98 88 79 50 38 19 5 2 2 0 - -
BHA 350 mg 100 85 65 46 0 - - - - - - -
ibuprofen 50 mg 100 94 81 75 66 56 28 25 19 6 3 0
ibuprofen 200 mg 97 90 84 81 74 68 52 26 13 3 3 0
kiwi 5% 96 83 79 75 67 58 38 38 33 17 0 -
kiwi 20% 88 72 59 56 41 38 19 19 9 3 0 -
R(+) lipoic acid 50 mg 96 91 82 82 77 64 46 27 18 5 0 -
R(+) lipoic acid 200 mg 100 87 81 68 43 30 11 5 0 - - -

This is the 131st update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 20.1 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 138 days.

Tea leaves have generally been useful in the past. Here I take a look at the effect of different types of tea. Overall black tea, both regular and decaffeinated seemed best.

Run #131

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

10 19 31 42 51 56 63 72 83 92
control one 85 58 39 30 18 9 3 0 - -
control two 88 50 47 34 19 16 6 3 0 -
Orange-Pekoe leaf tsp 83 65 57 48 48 48 26 17 13 0
Orange-Pekoe leaf 2 tsp 91 82 73 73 55 55 0 - - -
black, decaf leaf tsp 91 81 57 33 24 19 19 10 0 -
black, decaf leaf 2 tsp 94 77 77 65 41 41 24 18 0 -
green leaf tsp 91 58 55 49 24 24 15 6 0 -
green leaf 2 tsp 81 63 56 47 38 34 22 3 0 -
oolong leaf tsp 88 76 70 52 30 21 9 6 3 0
oolong leaf 2 tsp 89 58 42 42 31 12 12 4 0 -
pu-erh leaf tsp 86 51 23 14 11 6 0 - - -
pu-erh leaf 2 tsp 83 48 26 22 13 13 4 0 - -

This is the 132nd update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 20.5 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 134 days.

Here I retest blacks teas, and coffee. These can all inhibit iron availability, and possibly increase survival by limiting the growth of iron dependant bacteria on the medium, and in the gut. I also take a second look at peanut skin.

To no great surprise, both tea and coffee again offered some benefit, with decaffeinated coffee offering the best results over-all. The null results with resveratrol-rich peanut skin, are in agreement with my earlier null results with resveratrol itself. After starting this run I discovered an explanation for this lack of effect of resveratrol: ("A Drosophila Homoloque of Sir2 Modifies Position-Effect Variegation but does

not Affect Life Span" Genetics 162: 1675-1685 December 2002.) In short the powerful effect of resveratrol on (d)Sir2, can not be expected to affect lifespan, because (d)Sir2 itself does not affect fly lifespan. Since yeast lifespan is modulated by Sir2, then resveratrol does prolong yeast lifespan. The biochemistry of aging is different in different species.

Run #132

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

19 28 33 40 49 60 69 76 83 91 97 101 107
control one 86 71 62 38 19 24 5 5 5 0 - - -
control two 80 60 56 56 36 8 8 0 - - - - -
black decaf tea 2 bags/L 94 75 69 66 47 28 22 13 6 6 0 - -
black decaf tea 4 bags/L 82 67 67 56 48 26 11 7 0 - - - -
+ peanut skin 2 tsp 88 88 85 70 52 27 15 6 3 3 0 - -
black decaf tea 10 bags/L 85 75 70 55 40 25 15 5 5 0 - - -
+ peanut skin 4 tsp 72 67 61 50 44 32 11 6 0 - - - -
coffee 2 tsp 87 80 73 73 73 47 40 27 13 7 7 7 0
coffee 4 tsp 79 71 71 64 43 43 7 7 0 - - - -
coffee decaf 2 tsp 94 94 78 72 56 33 33 33 11 6 0 - -
coffee decaf 4 tsp 95 86 76 76 67 52 52 38 19 10 5 5 0
peanut skin 1 tsp 88 84 72 68 36 12 4 0 - - - - -
peanut skin 2 tsp 75 67 67 42 42 33 17 0 - - - - -
peanut skin 4 tsp 63 53 37 26 16 11 0 - - - - - -
peanut skin raw 1 tsp 58 47 47 37 26 5 0 - - - - - -
peanut skin raw 2 tsp 61 61 61 61 39 33 17 6 0 - - - -

This is the 133rd update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 20.7 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 131 days.

Here I take a look a various different methods of black tea preparation. In addition to adding the blended leaves directly to the fly food, I also created both normal hot, and as well as cold water extracts of tea leaves. Since the cold extracts were very dilute I continued the cold extractions over-night in a fridge. The hot extracts were merely stored as is in the fridge over-night. I also look at some different types of seaweed.

Although the tea leaves themselves improved day 70 survival, none of the leaf extracts offered any advantage at this time point. This contradicts my previous results. After looking through the published

literature one explanation suggested itself. The survival improving effect of black tea on drosophila has been ascribed to the presence of a "volatile" iron chelator. If this is the case, then it is possible that this may have evaporated during over-night storage of the tea extracts.

I'll have to take a second look at this variable in future.

Of the seaweeds, nori appeared to be modestly beneficial, while high dose wakame turned out to be unexpectedly toxic.

Run #133

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

20 27 36 47 56 63 70 78 84 88 94 100 105
control one 82 82 75 54 32 14 7 4 4 4 4 0 -
control two 97 97 83 64 42 17 11 6 3 0 - - -
nori tsp 95 79 63 37 21 21 16 11 5 5 5 5 0
nori 2 tsp 95 95 70 55 40 30 30 15 5 5 5 0 -
black tea leaves tsp 88 82 77 65 41 41 29 12 0 - - - -
black tea leaves 2 tsp 94 94 77 77 41 29 12 6 6 0 - - -
",hot extract 2 bags/L 93 90 83 55 31 17 3 3 3 3 0 - -
",hot extract 10 bags/L 72 61 61 23 11 0 - - - - - - -
",cold extract 2 bags/L 96 91 87 52 13 13 4 4 0 - - - -
",cold extract 10 bags/L 84 79 63 42 5 5 5 0 - - - - -
",cold, then heated 2 bags 96 92 71 67 29 13 8 4 4 4 4 0 -
",cold, then heated 10 bags 96 96 93 63 52 26 7 4 4 4 0 - -
wakame tsp 75 75 70 40 25 10 10 5 5 5 0 - -
wakame 2 tsp 0! - - - - - - - - - - - -

This is the 134th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 21.1 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 127 days.

Several records were set in this run. The maximum control longevity of 113 days eclipses the previous record of 95 days set back in run #89. Marmite yeast extract at the 1/2 tsp dose also set an all-time record of 129 days, which beats the previous record of 124 days set by pomegranate syrup in run #87. Marmite is being retested in run #148.

I attribute both of these records partly to improved pathogen control in the breeding bottle used to supply the flies for this run. I had been "rotating" breeding bottles more often of late, and this change may be

reducing pathogen load.

For some time I had been thinking that the primary pathogen(s) killing most of my flies before they can get "old", were viruses. However many of the supplements I have been feeding to flies in these experiments had documented antiviral effects, yet failed to significantly increase survival. The benefit in the present experiment of both fructose and the probiotic lactobaccilus makes me think that it is bacteria, and not viruses or other pathogens that are the primary threat. Some previous tests of glucose, and sucrose also pointed in this direction.

For some time I have been adding 1/8 tsp citric acid to all bottles, despite previous tests indicating that higher doses were more beneficial. This has resulted in some false positive results, when an added supplement provided addition acid. I had been concerned that many phytochemicals would be less stable at acid pH, hence the conservative use of citric acid. However I have since learned that some plant phytochemicals are more, not less stable at acid pH.

In update #139 I will be reporting on further tests on sugars, and there are a number of other, later experiments in progress testing the effects of other interventions targeting bacteria. Ultimately, I hope to

eliminate most deaths due to infection, so that longevity is then largely determined by the rate of motor neuron degeneration. This is the main limiting factor in fly longevity found in high quality experiments

published in medical journals. If pathogen mortality were to be avoided in my own fly experiments, then these experiments too might become a straight forward series of battles against age-associated motor neuron degeneration.

Although the motor neuron is not a major factor in human mortality, central nervous system health does appear to be important. Fly supplements with significant neurotropic effects might reduce dementia risk in humans, and thereby possibly exert at least some salutary effects on maximum human lifespan.

Run #134 Percent Survival on Day
supplement 48 55 62 70 80 86 92 97 108 113 120 129 130
controlone 25 17 8 4 0 - - - - - - - -
control two 42 17 17 8 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 - -
box phorn 2% 52 42 29 26 7 7 3 3 3 3 0 - -
box phorn 10% 46 35 35 27 19 12 8 4 0 - - - -
brewer's yeast tsp 33 29 24 19 10 5 0 - - - - - -
brewer's yeast 2 tsp 25 14 7 4 0 - - - - - - - -
engivita yeast tsp 38 29 24 5 5 0 - - - - - - -
engivita yeas 2 tsp 30 26 13 9 9 4 0 - - - - - -
fructose tsp 64 43 36 7 0 - - - - - - - -
fructose 2 tsp 71 62 24 19 5 5 0 - - - - - -
lactobacillus billion 44 28 24 12 0 - - - - - - - -
lactobacillus 2 bil cells 50 28 28 22 17 6 0 - - - - - -
marmite yeast ext tsp 56 33 22 22 11 11 11 11 6 6 6 6 0
marmite yeast ext 2 tsp 17 6 6 0 - - - - - - - - -

This is the 135th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 20.9 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 129 days.

This run examines more types of cooked beans. The only notable item is that the control maximum longevity was 95 days, which ties with the 2nd highest previous control longevity, obtained in run #89.

Run #135

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

10 17 26 37 46 53 60 68 78 84 90 95 106 111 118
control one 100 96 82 50 39 36 25 25 7 7 7 4 0 - -
control two 100 87 77 60 37 27 17 10 3 3 3 0 - - -
ancient ancestor 5% 100 93 77 53 40 30 30 23 13 10 0 - - - -
ancient ancestor 20% 96 79 79 63 42 21 13 13 8 8 4 4 4 0 -
appalousa bean 5% 96 85 78 52 30 26 22 11 4 0 - - - - -
appalousa bean 20% 89 89 83 56 39 22 22 22 17 6 0 - - - -
black eye bean 5% 91 87 70 57 48 35 30 17 9 4 4 4 0 - -
black eye bean 20% 100 96 79 58 46 38 33 17 8 4 4 4 4 0 -
canolini bean 5% 91 82 77 73 55 50 50 36 32 23 18 14 0 - -
canolini bean 20% 100 95 80 60 55 30 15 5 0 - - - - - -
great northern 5% 100 79 79 64 57 43 36 21 21 14 14 7 7 7 0
great northern 20% 100 94 88 88 71 59 41 35 12 0 - - - - -
yellow eye bean 5% 88 82 71 59 41 29 24 24 18 0 - - - - -
yellow eye bean 20% 94 82 82 53 35 24 24 18 6 6 6 0 - - -

This is the 136'th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 21.0 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 128 days.

Hard to believe how many different types of beans there are. There is nothing much of interest to report.

Run #136

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

5 12 21 32 41 48 55 63 73 79 85 90 101 106 113
control one 100 85 80 75 60 55 40 15 5 0 - - - - -
control two 100 100 100 96 96 91 65 44 26 13 9 4 0 - -
dhana bean 5% 100 94 94 82 76 67 61 42 18 6 0 - - - -
dhana bean 20% 100 97 95 92 81 73 62 38 11 5 3 0 - - -
fava bean 5% 100 94 94 88 84 78 72 56 22 6 3 0 - - -
fava bean 20% 100 100 95 81 76 71 48 43 24 10 0 - - - -
pink bean 5% 100 100 92 88 84 84 76 64 44 36 24 8 4 0 -
pink bean 20% 100 100 91 87 83 70 44 22 13 4 0 - - - -
Swedish brown 5% 100 93 93 89 82 71 61 50 29 14 7 0 - - -
Swedish brown 20% 100 87 87 83 83 78 65 44 13 4 0 - - - -
toor bean 5% 96 93 89 89 89 89 78 70 44 33 26 15 4 0 -
toor bean 20% 100 96 96 89 89 82 75 50 29 7 4 4 0 - -
urad bean 5% 100 100 95 90 95 95 84 63 37 37 32 16 5 5 0
urad bean 20% 100 96 96 82 82 77 59 41 23 23 0 - - - -

This is the 137th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 20.9 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 129 days.

Of the lettuces types previously tested, only head lettuce seemed to be beneficial. Here I seek to rule out chance, in this result from run #111. Similarly I also look again at a sterol mixture, which appeared to prolong the ability of drosophila to fly in run #129, though there was also some increase in early mortality.

Head lettuce turned out to be a dud. Once again sterols appeared to increase early mortality. My workbook indicates that the fly food appeared to be quite wet in many of the sterol bottles. This may account for their increased mortality. I suspect the flies became dirty from the wet fly food, and suffered from infections. Adding carob or coffee may have helped prevent this. The hydrophobic nature of sterols may be inhibiting the ability of fly food to hold water. Experiments adding some extra sugar to the fly food to help prevent this are also in progress.

Run #137

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

10 21 30 37 44 52 62 68 74 79 90
control one 100 82 86 68 50 36 14 9 5 0 -
control two 100 88 83 73 42 10 2 0 - - -
lettuce, head 33% 97 88 88 66 38 13 3 0 - - -
sterols 54 mg 97 70 62 54 30 19 8 3 3 0 -
sterols 108 mg 100 84 63 44 25 6 3 0 - - -
+ carob 2 tsp 95 91 91 91 81 48 10 5 0 - -
+ coffee 2 tsp 100 90 75 70 55 55 30 20 20 0 -
+ lettuce 33% 91 65 57 39 13 13 9 4 4 4 0
sterols 216 mg 100 67 30 30 15 15 7 4 4 0 -
sterols 432 mg 72 61 39 33 28 11 6 0 - - -
sterols 864 mg 83 57 44 35 13 9 4 4 0 - -

This is the 138th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 22.1 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 116 days.

This run had one intriguing result. Although control flies had lost the ability to fly after the day 79 census, flies fed a high dose of purple sweet potato were able to continue flying during the day 91 census, and were still rather "frisky" at the day 100 census. It is tempting to surmise that it was a slowing down of motor neuron degeneration that was responsible for the increase in maximum survival from 91 to 110 days. It is extremely doubtful that any putative anti-pathogen effect could account for this, particularly since early mortality was actually increased by this (raw) sweet potato. Only replication studies, now in progress will be able to determine if this increased flying ability, at advanced ages is a real effect, or is simply due to chance.

If the reader wishes to sample purple sweet potato, this item can usually be found in any Chinatown, where it is often mislabeled as purple yam. No purple "yam" as such is available in North America.

Run #138

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

28 36 46 52 58 63 74 79 86 91 100 105 110 115
control one 90 90 83 75 65 55 25 18 5 3 0 - - -
control two 81 79 62 47 38 33 14 5 0 - - - - -
apple-pear 5% 84 81 72 66 56 56 41 28 13 3 0 - - -
apple-pear 20% 96 89 85 81 69 58 39 27 8 0 - - - -
beet leaves 5% 75 75 69 63 59 47 25 9 6 3 0 - - -
beet leaves 20% 95 91 81 71 71 62 38 19 5 5 0 - - -
chayote 5% 90 83 76 55 55 45 14 3 0 - - - - -
chayote 20% 86 82 75 71 57 43 18 7 7 7 0 - - -
green lo bok 5% 88 65 54 53 44 35 27 18 9 3 3 0 - -
green lo bok 20% 73 73 57 57 47 33 30 17 7 3 3 0 - -
jacama 5% 79 76 55 45 41 28 10 0 - - - - - -
jacama 20% 73 69 62 58 46 39 23 8 4 0 - - - -
purple sweet potato 5% 75 64 43 36 36 32 14 4 4 0 - - - -
purple sweet potato 20% 65 57 54 54 54 43 43 43 43 22 14 5 3 0

This is the 139th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 22.1 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 115 days.

This run compares the effects of various sugars. Sugars exert a mild antibacterial effect via increased osmotic stress. However increasing the sugar content, and not adding any additional water can also stress the flies, as well as bacteria.

At equivalent doses glucose outperformed both fructose, as well as sucrose, which itself is 50% fructose and 50% glucose. The result with 4 tsp fructose indicates that high doses might be optimal. However since addition of any supplements may also increase osmotic load, if sugars become a standard additive to the fly food, the dosage should be conservative so as to avoid possible dehydration problems. On the other hand, at low sugar levels osmotic effects may account for some of the benefit of some supplements.

I also checked sterols out again, with a little added sugar to help prevent sterol induced wetting of the fly food. Unfortunately the dosage of sugar was inadequate to prevent this wetting, and so once again sterols caused a reduction in survival.

Run #139

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

3 10 17 25 35 41 47 52 63 68 75 80 89 94 99 104
control one 98 95 81 72 47 37 30 19 9 2 0 - - - - -
control two 100 87 73 67 57 43 37 33 10 10 0 - - - - -
fructose 1/4 tsp 94 80 63 69 66 60 46 31 14 9 3 3 0 - - -
fructose tsp 100 79 79 67 67 58 63 42 13 13 8 8 4 0 - -
fructose 1 tsp 100 90 86 79 76 69 62 55 35 28 10 7 0 - - -
+sterols 432 mg 97 82 62 50 24 9 12 9 3 3 0 - - - - -
fructose 2 tsp 100 96 86 86 82 79 71 61 32 18 7 0 - - - -
fructose 4 tsp 100 83 83 83 80 80 77 77 73 63 33 30 10 0 - -
glucose tsp 100 88 81 69 59 53 53 47 47 41 22 3 3 3 3 0
glucose 2 tsp 100 96 85 82 78 78 78 78 63 63 56 41 26 7 7 0
sucrose tsp 100 91 64 36 36 36 36 27 27 27 9 9 5 5 5 0
sucrose 2 tsp 100 100 95 90 85 90 80 70 50 35 15 15 0 - - -

This is the 140th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 22.1 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 115 days. My previous effort at testing ling zhi (or ganoderma lucidum) was with a supplement which in fact had only a small amount of ling zhi in it. Here I set the record straight, by testing Jilin brand powdered mushroom. Also with reports coming in that nicotine may exert an anti-dementia effect, I try feeding my flies a little tobacco.

Both ganoderma lucidum and tobacco turned out be duds. For some mysterious reason pollen allergy capsules from Chinatown had a mild beneficial effect on maximal lifespan.

Run #140

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

11 19 29 35 41 46 57 62 69 74 82 87 92 97
control one 82 78 65 57 43 32 12 10 10 7 2 2 0 -
control two 84 72 56 56 56 50 31 28 22 13 3 0 - -
buckwheat flour tsp 87 76 64 49 47 33 11 7 2 2 2 0 - -
buckwheat flour 2 tsp 95 90 58 42 26 32 24 18 5 0 - - - -
ganoderma lucidum 300 mg 95 87 73 70 57 54 38 32 14 8 3 0 - -
ganoderma lucidum 600 mg 94 82 79 73 67 52 24 24 12 12 0 - - -
ganoderma lucidum 1200 mg 90 79 62 62 52 45 24 21 3 3 0 - - -
ganoderma lucidum 2400 mg 87 77 58 56 50 46 27 23 15 4 0 - - -
oyster sauce tsp 92 87 79 77 66 62 34 17 4 4 4 4 0 -
oyster sauce 2 tsp 96 79 69 65 65 48 38 25 15 4 0 - - -
pollen allergy (1 cap) 80 63 60 55 43 23 8 8 5 5 5 5 3 0
pollen allergy (4 caps) 83 69 62 60 43 36 17 17 7 5 2 2 2 0
tobacco tsp 87 82 71 68 47 42 18 11 5 5 0 - - -
tobacco 2 tsp 94 89 78 70 57 39 11 7 2 2 0 - - -

This is the 141st update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 22.9 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 106 days.

Here I retest some amino acids at higher doses than previously. Lysine can inhibit some glycation reactions, while tyrosine inhibits cellular senescence of human fibroblasts grown in Eagle medium. (Experimental Cell Research 1972, 566-568)

Bragging rights to last surviving fly this time went to a lysine bottle. However, since this is due to a single fly living for a long time, I am inclined to regard this as a fluke. Phenylalanine did appear to be slightly beneficial, but most of the others were toxic to some degree.

Possibly the most interesting results were with high dose tyrosine. (Unfortunately the low dose bottle was eventually destroyed by mould .) Control flies had lost the ability to fly by the day 70 census. Although tyrosine increased early mortality, flies did continue to "fly" till day 80. Although this could easily be a chance finding, it is still tempting to speculate that this might be due to a slowing of motor neuron degeneration.

Run #141

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

6 16 22 28 33 44 49 56 61 70 75 80 85 90 96
control one 95 81 71 71 71 62 48 33 33 10 0 - - - -
control two 97 78 72 72 67 47 19 17 8 0 - - - - -
lysine 1 gm 100 87 87 90 84 50 24 16 8 3 3 3 3 3 0
lysine 4 gm 90 77 73 50 43 0 - - - - - - - - -
ornithine 1 gm 100 77 73 73 70 40 30 20 13 0 - - - - -
ornithine 4 gm 100 77 71 62 29 3 0 - - - - - - - -
phenylalanine 1 gm 100 96 87 91 91 65 52 35 17 9 4 0 - - -
phenylalanine 4 gm 90 80 75 70 70 55 45 25 20 10 10 0 - - -
proline 1 gm 96 74 74 70 70 44 22 4 0 - - - - - -
proline 4 gm 100 96 96 96 88 54 29 13 0 - - - - - -
tyrosine 1 gm 68 64 55 55 55 50 46 27 14 0 * - - - - -
tyrosine 4 gm 67 60 60 57 50 47 43 27 23 7 3 3 0 - -

* = mould

This is the 142nd update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 23.6 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 99 days.

Here I test a number of pills I picked up from a Chinese store, and compare them to additions of sugars. One pill called tonic-for-rejuvenation I selected just for the name.

The tonic did OK anyhow, as did the "cataract" tablets. However inexpensive common table sugar (sucrose) was effective as well. Once again sucrose out-pointed fructose. I hypothesize that the advantage of added sugars might be due to (osmotic) inhibition of bacteria.

Run #142

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

10 21 26 33 38 47 53 58 63 68 80 89 95
control one 100 97 90 82 59 23 21 21 13 3 0 - -
control two 91 83 83 74 65 22 17 11 7 7 0 - -
cataract pill,1 tab 100 89 78 50 39 20 15 13 9 7 7 0 -
cataract pill, 4 tab 98 94 87 72 63 50 26 26 17 13 2 0 -
fructose 2 tsp 98 91 84 73 60 33 24 18 9 7 2 0 -
sucrose 1 tsp 97 94 94 68 65 48 36 23 23 19 7 0 -
sucrose 2 tsp 95 90 90 88 71 44 39 37 27 24 12 2 0
sucrose 3 tsp 100 94 94 80 73 51 37 35 24 20 12 0 -
sugar, brown 2 tsp 97 87 78 73 62 49 43 35 24 16 0 - -
tienchi 1 tab 100 94 85 59 39 28 13 9 2 0 - - -
tienchi 4 tab 88 82 70 49 49 33 18 18 9 6 0 - -
tonic-for-rejuvenation-1 100 92 92 64 64 41 23 21 15 15 13 3 0
tonic-for-rejuvenation-4 95 95 92 76 71 63 47 45 37 32 3 0 -
wu mei tea 0.3% 89 86 82 61 36 36 21 7 4 0 - - -
wu mei tea 16.7% 92 100 92 81 69 46 35 27 23 4 0 - -
+ ling zhi 600mg 87 80 77 64 56 41 36 21 8 8 3 0 -

This is the 143rd update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 24.1 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 93 days.

For some time, 1/8 tsp of citric has been a "standard" additive to 4-24 fly food, to help remedy a deficiency with respect to resistance to bacteria. Some previous testing had indicated that higher dosages of citric acid are more beneficial, and that sucrose additions are helpful as well. Here I seek to determine what the optimal amounts of citric acid and sucrose should be.

Just how poor 4-24 fly food could be, took me by surprise. Although this was an "older" batch of fly food I did not expect to see visible "rotting" of the food in the no-additive, and 1 tsp sucrose bottles. Fortunately neither the 2 tsp sucrose bottle, nor any of the bottles with added citric acid showed such visible rotting.

Although throughout most of the experiment the bottles with 1/2 tsp citric acid were significantly superior, there was a late onset of mould in these three bottles, which I believe destroyed the surviving flies. My workbook blamed a bad batch of fly food.

Naturally I would never consider using such a poor fly food, except for two factors. 4-24 "medium" is the ONLY commercially available fly food I have been able to import. My previous attempts to manufacture my own fly food failed when I was refused access to a mould inhibitor, due to the lack of certain letters after my name. For the foreseeable future I will remain stuck with 4-24 fly food, though I do plan on ordering it in smaller batches. (Run #157 is taking a look at citric acid again, while using a new batch of fly food.)

Finally I have to account for the anomalously poor result for the 1/8 tsp citric bottle. This one is my fault. I use bleach to help clean out old breeding bottles. My workbook listed that less care than usual was spent washing two of these bottles. The 1/8 tsp citric bottle likely accounts for one of these, while the second bottle appears to have been used in the next run. In future a more time consuming procedure will be followed in my bottle washing.

Run #143

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

11 16 23 28 37 43 48 53 58 70 79 85
none 100 97 87 62 35 27 19 11 3 3 0 -
citric 1/8 tsp 100 97 0 - - - - - - - - -
citric tsp 100 97 94 90 84 77 74 55 23 0 (mould )
sucrose 1 tsp 100 77 59 18 5 5 5 5 5 0 - -
+ citric 1/8 tsp 100 95 95 79 47 42 21 16 11 5 0 -
+ citric tsp 100 100 100 100 94 87 68 58 52 0 (mould )
sucrose 2 tsp 100 91 82 77 62 38 29 18 3 3 0 -
+ citric 1/8 tsp 92 88 72 72 60 64 52 40 28 12 4 0
+ citric tsp 100 100 97 97 94 88 78 66 41 13 0 (mould )

This is the 144th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 24.8 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 85 days.

In this run I take a look at some solutes which may have some antibacterial action, and compare them to table sugar. All underperformed sucrose, but maltitol came close.

Note: I attribute the poor early performance of low dose 1,3-propanediol, to possible contamination with traces of bleach. For a further discussion of a possible source of this contamination, please refer to Run #143.

Run #144

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

13 18 27 33 38 43 48 60 69 75 81 86
control one 86 79 57 36 18 14 7 0 - - - -
control two 86 80 69 40 34 23 14 3 0 - - -
maltitol tsp 97 92 81 69 58 44 36 19 3 0 - -
maltitol 1 tsp 86 86 72 62 48 41 28 17 10 3 0 -
maltitol 2 tsp 100 100 90 74 63 58 42 37 0 - - -
maltitol 3 tsp 96 96 85 78 44 30 30 11 4 4 0 -
PEG200 1/8 tsp 100 86 68 50 32 18 14 0 - - - -
PEG200 tsp 62 42 19 8 0 - - - - - - -
1,3-propanediol 1/8 tsp 50 32 29 21 15 12 9 3 0 - - -
1,3-propanediol tsp 85 82 67 52 39 33 21 9 0 - - -
sucrose 2 tsp 97 97 97 93 77 67 50 23 17 7 3 0
triethylene glycol 1/8 tsp 92 89 73 50 35 19 12 0 - - - -
triethylene glycol tsp 91 78 44 26 22 9 4 0 - - - -

This is the 145th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 25.2 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 81 days.

This run looks at some doses of amino acids that are higher than those tested before. Control longevity was excellent in this run. This might be due to the increase in citric acid from 1/8 tsp to 1/2 tsp in all bottles. Sucrose 1 tsp was added as well.

Although some amino acids were toxic when added in excess, at least leucine, and isoleucine appeared to be safe. Arginine looked good during the first month, though survival subsequently tailed off. This might be due to the surface wetness induced in the fly food by the added arginine. At young ages, flies walk mostly on the sides of the milk bottle. As they age they spend much more time walking on the fly food at the bottom of the bottles. The wetness of arginine laced food, may have made the aged flies dirty, and encouraged bacterial infections.

Run #145

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

7 12 21 26 31 36 41 53 62 68 74 79 84
control one 100 100 100 100 100 97 85 55 15 6 3 0 -
control two 100 100 100 98 98 96 93 64 24 22 20 4 0
alanine 2 tsp 100 85 6 0 - - - - - - - - -
arginine 2 tsp 100 100 100 100 100 84 69 19 3 0 - - -
cysteine 2 tsp 0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
glycine 2 tsp 59 32 0 - - - - - - - - - -
isoleucine 2 tsp 100 100 96 96 96 93 89 57 43 18 4 0 -
leucine 2 tsp 100 100 96 96 96 96 92 52 32 20 4 0 -
taurine 2 tsp 97 90 71 55 55 53 42 8 0 - - - -
threonine 2 tsp 57 0 - - - - - - - - - - -
valine 2 tsp 100 100 100 93 83 43 3 0 - - - - -

This is the 146th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 25.3 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 80 days. In this run I take a look again at doses of citric acid higher than the control 1/2 tsp, and also check out lactobacillus "probiotic"
bacteria (75% acidophilus & 25% bifidus).


Citric acid at 1 & 2 tsp doses appeared to help. Lactobacillus was also beneficial, but only at doses much larger than those that were immunostimulatory in mammalian species.



Run #146

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

25 30 35 40 52 61 67 73 78 83 88 93
control one 100 100 94 91 71 35 35 12 6 0 - -
control two 100 100 100 98 70 28 18 0 - - - -
alum 1/8 tsp 91 82 71 61 36 11 2 0 - - - -
alum tsp 0 - - - - - - - - - - -
blackberry syrup tsp 100 100 97 97 71 40 32 5 0 - - -
blackberry 2 tsp 95 95 95 92 78 41 24 11 8 0 - -
citric acid 1 tsp 100 100 100 95 81 61 51 12 0 - - -
citric acid 2 tsp 100 95 95 95 85 50 33 13 5 3 0 -
citric acid 3 tsp 100 94 94 88 65 29 21 6 0 - - -
lactobacillus4 bil cells 100 95 88 81 62 33 26 10 3 0 - -
lactobacillus 8 bil cells 90 90 90 90 77 43 33 17 3 0 - -
lactobacillus 16 bil cells 96 96 89 75 64 39 36 7 7 4 0 -
lactobacillus 32 bil cells 92 92 84 84 60 48 36 12 8 8 4 0


This is the 147th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 25.7 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 75 days.

In this run simethicone turned out to be unexpectedly toxic.

Run #147

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

3 12 17 22 27 32 44 53 59 65 70 75 80
control one 97 100 100 100 97 93 60 17 17 10 7 0 -
control two 97 97 92 89 87 84 65 46 24 11 0 - -
cordyceps 600 mg 100 100 95 90 80 70 45 15 0 - - - -
cordyceps 2400 mg 100 96 96 86 82 73 50 36 14 0 - - -
fluoride 1/4 mg 96 96 92 92 92 89 65 31 19 8 4 0 -
fluoride 1 mg 100 68 61 50 46 42 39 14 4 0 - - -
hyacinth bean 5% 100 100 100 100 96 73 64 9 5 5 5 5 0
hyacinth bean 20% 100 96 96 96 96 84 28 4 4 0 - - -
simethicone 80 mg 96 0 - - - - - - - - - - -
simethicone 320 mg 73 0 - - - - - - - - - - -
sucrose 4 tsp 100 96 92 84 60 56 32 8 4 0 - - -
+ sterols 432 mg 100 96 96 96 91 61 22 4 0 - - - -

This is the 148th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 25.7 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 75 days.

In this run I retest marmite, and try a purple sweet potato product called Ube powder.

Despite offering an advantage earlier, this time marmite turned out to be a dud. However this time the marmite was from an open jar, so perhaps only fresh marmite is protective.

Unexpectedly Ube powder turned out to be inactive. Again, perhaps it is only fresh purple sweet potato that is protective.

Run #148

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

7 12 17 22 27 39 48 54 60 65 70
control one 100 100 100 100 100 78 38 34 19 13 0
control two 100 96 96 93 89 56 22 19 11 0 -
marmite 1/4 tsp 100 100 100 84 77 61 36 16 7 0 -
marmite 1/4 tsp 100 97 97 90 77 40 13 3 0 - -
Ube powder 1/4 tsp 97 91 91 91 84 69 47 22 6 0 -
Ube powder tsp 100 100 100 94 91 72 31 13 6 0 -
Ube powder 1 tsp 100 100 100 100 100 73 39 15 4 0 -
Ube powder 2 tsp 100 97 97 88 88 69 38 28 16 3 0
red sweet potato 5% 100 100 100 100 91 82 52 39 18 3 0
red sweet potato 20% 100 100 100 96 92 52 24 16 8 0 -

This is the 149th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 25.9 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 73 days. Here I test another coconut product, recheck Ube (frozen this time), and tyrosine. No advantage was seen this time with either coconut, or Ube. It is possible that it is only uncooked Ube is protective. Tyrosine turned out to be toxic once again.

Run #149

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

1 6 11 16 28 37 43 49 54 59 64
control one 100 94 94 94 72 11 6 0 - - -
control two 100 100 96 96 89 69 54 8 8 4 0
coconut gel 5% 100 100 86 81 67 14 10 0 - - -
coconut gel 20% 100 100 100 100 72 50 28 6 0 - -
frozen purple 20% 100 100 100 100 82 35 18 0 - - -
-(sweet potato) 20% 100 93 93 93 67 0 - - - - -
+ tyrosine 4 gm 47 37 37 37 32 21 16 0 - - -
tyrosine tsp 42 29 29 21 13 4 0 - - - -
tyrosine 1 gm 50 31 38 38 13 0 - - - - -
tyrosine 2 gm 44 33 28 22 0 - - - - - -
tyrosine 4 gm 55 50 50 41 27 9 0 - - - -
tyrosine 8 gm 79 64 64 64 36 14 7 0 - - -

This is the 150th update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 26.4 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 68 days. Here I retest cinnamon and tyrosine. Again tyrosine was toxic, and I probably wouldn't have bothered with it, if I had known the results of the past several experiments, before starting this one. Cinnamon may have been beneficial, but only at a low dosage. Run #159 is testing even lower dosages of cinnamon.

The lack of advantage for citric 1/2 tsp dosage over 1/8 tsp was a surprise. Is there a temperature dependance on citric acid effects?

Run #150

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

5 10 22 31 37 43 48 53 58 63 69 74
citric 1/8 tsp 100 100 97 73 64 55 42 27 18 9 3 0
+ tyrosine 1 gm 70 67 53 37 27 13 13 7 3 3 3 0
citric + glucose 1 tsp 97 97 78 63 47 25 9 3 3 0 - -
+ cinnamon 1/4 tsp 100 100 94 84 74 60 38 26 10 2 0 -
+ cinnamon 1 tsp 63 6 0 - - - - - - - - -
+ cinnamon extract 4.5% 100 100 74 62 52 38 24 14 5 0 - -
+ cinnamon extract 9% 100 95 60 55 38 17 5 5 0 - - -
+ cinnamon extract 18% 86 6 0 - - - - - - - - -
+ tyrosine 1 gm 44 39 39 26 18 13 5 3 0 - - -
glucose 4 tsp 100 100 86 67 64 42 19 14 8 3 0 -
+ tyrosine 1 gm 52 48 33 26 19 4 4 4 4 0 - -
sucrose 4 tsp 97 93 72 59 48 28 14 7 3 0 - -

This is the 151st update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 26.8 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity (EML) using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 63 days. Unfortunately the batch of fly food used, was somewhat old in this experiment. This was almost certainly the reason why mold grew in several of the bottles, which likely limited their maximum survival. It is curious that maximum survival in control two was 10% above EML. Huperzine will be retested at lower, and hopefully non-toxic levels. The best survival at day 48 was with inositol, which will be retested as well.

Run #151

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

17 26 32 38 43 48 53 58 64 69 74
control one 100 100 100 93 82 61 29 11 7 0 -
control two 97 91 91 82 74 62 53 32 3 3 0
glucose 2 tsp 90 83 79 72 66 41 38 17 3 0 -
bladderwrack 500 mg 100 97 94 81 81 68 42 29 10 0 (mold)
bladderwrack 2000 mg 93 93 93 86 83 52 35 10 0 - -
huperzine 2 mg 90 81 81 77 68 55 32 29 13 7 0
huperzine 8 mg 92 68 52 32 20 0 - - - - -
inositol 2 tsp 96 92 92 88 88 80 44 36 20 0 {mold)
lactose tsp 100 87 87 87 77 63 50 30 7 0 -
lactose 2 tsp 96 88 84 80 80 52 28 12 0 - (mold)
Na citrate tsp 96 78 48 35 35 17 4 0 - - -
Na citrate 2 tsp 0 - - - - - - - - - -

This is the 152nd update of my fly longevity experiments. Average temperature was 26.8 C during this run. Estimated maximal longevity (EML) using the formula (363 - T*11.2) is 63 days.

Here I have a ube showdown. Back in run #138, raw purple sweet potato (ube) appeared to be beneficial. However ube was a dud in run #148 in powder form, and in run #149 in frozen form. The processing of later two forms would have involved cooking, which might be the critical difference. Here I check ube that is raw, as well as boiled whole. I also test the effect of cutting the ube into small pieces, so that boiling can then leach much of the purple color. Finally a hot water extract of ube is also tested.

By a fluke of luck the control one bottle's maximum survival exceeded EML by 17%. As expected, boiling the ube rendered it mildly toxic. Whatever was responsible for this toxicity, it was poorly water soluble, since most of the hot water extracts slightly increased survival at 52 days. In published experiments the heating of fats has increased their toxicity to flies. This might account for the current results.

Raw ube proved to beneficial again. My primary suspects for ube's main prolongevity ingredients are elements of the anthocyanidin-based purple colouring.

Run #152

supplement

Percent Survival on Day

11 20 26 32 37 42 47 52 58 63 68 74 79
control one 93 90 90 79 68 57 39 18 14 11 7 4 0
control two 97 89 89 83 69 49 34 20 14 0 - - -
ube, leached 20% 100 51 51 31 26 3 0 - - - - - -
ube, leached 20% 97 79 73 52 36 15 3 0 - - - - -
ube, boiled 20% 92 77 59 28 8 0 - - - - - - -
ube, boiled 20% 100 93 89 63 44 33 7 4 0 - - - -
ube, extract 20% 97 93 93 93 90 73 53 27 7 3 0 - -
ube, extract 20% 92 89 89 85 81 62 42 15 0 - - - -
ube, extract 50% 100 96 92 84 64 60 40 24 8 0 - - -
ube, extract 50% 100 91 91 83 74 57 39 26 9 4 0 - -
ube, raw 20% 100 81 81 81 69 63 44 38 13 0 - - -
ube, raw 20% 97 93 93 93 79 61 54 50 18 4 0 - -

Welcome New Readers

In July 2004 it was decided to restrict discussion on the Cryonics Institute's members only email list strictly to cryonics matters only. Some debate followed as to which life extension Yahoo email group be adopted as being the forum for CI members to use, and it was eventually decided to recommend unofficially that people be directed to the Longevity Report Yahoo group. As a result its readership increased and the group acquired more people who are well educated and expert in these matters. A knock on effect resulted in several people from Alcor joining the list as well, followed by a number of life extension people with no affiliation to cryonics. The group can be joined off Longevity Report's web site, http://www.longevity-report.com

There will be much useful information in articles on this group which will not appear in the printed newsletter, for example a recent debate on Resveratrol and discussion as to the most beneficial formulation thereof, or debate on the Horizon anti-vitamin programme..

Those few people reading this in printed format are urged to get onto the Internet one way or another. It is possible, if you don't want to buy your own computer, or get a dedicated Internet appliance (available from 30 for Amstrad's Emailer Plus), to go to a cybercafé or public library. You can still join the Yahoo email group, and have you own Yahoo email which you can view off the web at any terminal anywhere in the world. Ask for assistance at the library or cybercafé, or go in with a computer literate friend.Here are some examples from the Yahoo Group Longevity-Report

Hello Horizon watchers.

In general, not that bad a programme, although it was rather focussed on the downside of vitamins to the exclusion of any upside (e.g. higher intake of folic acid was dismissed by one expert, without any follow-up, as a waste, ignoring the role of folic acid in preventing colon cancer[*] or Alzheimer's). At least the downside was based on scientific evidence, which makes a pleasant change from usual parade of doctors bad- mouthing vitamins without having *any* supporting evidence.

Now for some specifics (I'll dig out the references if anyone's interested in looking further into this):

1) Beta-carotene and lung cancer. There are two studies which are widely presented as showing a link between lung cancer and smoking. As recall, there is some data that was not presented in the programme:

a) although the over-all lung cancer rate amongst smokers was higher in the beta carotene takers than in the other smokers (the controls), the rate amongst the controls was rising faster at the end of the one study that presented the more detailed breakdown; had the study continued, instead of being prematurely terminated, a different overall result may have emerged. (The same time-skewed effect was noted in the folic acid and colon cancer nurses study: initially there was a (non-significant) rise in the colon cancer rate amongst the higher folate groups. Later (after 10 years of folate supplementation) the cancer rate had dropped dramatically in favour of the folate supplementers; by 15 years being at nearly 1/5 of the rate amongst the controls. See [*] for details)

b) those smokers who also took vitamin E (in addition to beta-carotene) did not have a higher rate of lung cancer

c) non-smokers were not affected (although possibly because the lung cancer rate was too low to be significant).

2) Vitamin A causing osteoporosis:

The truth but, again, not the whole truth. The study was conducted in Sweden, and what's interesting is that Sweden, being a Nordic country, receives a low level of sunlight. It is quite possible that there is widespread sub-clinical vitamin D deficiency in Sweden and it was this deficiency, *in combination* with the high vitamin A levels, that caused the osteoporosis. A number of studies are now showing that higher cancer rates in general are associated with low levels of vitamin D / low levels of sunlight exposure in northern latitudes (in both Scandinavia and N. America); vitamin D is normally produced by the action on sunlight on our skin; clearly there is some sort of widespread vitamin D deficiency at northern latitudes, even if it isn't presenting itself as rickets in children, but only as mild osteoporosis in adults. Only a circumstantial argument, but nevertheless it fits with other data that indicates that vitamin D protects against osteoporosis (and many forms of cancer).

[*] Details of the folic acid and colon cancer study: Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study. Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Fuchs C, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Willett WC in Ann Intern Med 1998 Oct 1;129(7):517-24 PMID: 9758570 Long-term use (>15 years) of folate-containing multivitamin supplements produced an almost 5-fold reduction in the incidence of colon cancer. Other cancers not analysed. The protective effect (relative to age-matched controls) increased with the duration of supplementation. The relative risk of colon cancer over the period 1980-1994 (against folate intake in 1980, without adjusting for other vitamins) was: 1.0 (<= 200 g/d), 0.92 (201-300 g/d), 0.79 (301-400 g/d) & 0.69 (>400 g/d). This risk declined with time: comparing the >400 with the <=200 folate g/d group the risk declined from 0.85 (1980-mid1988) to 0.56 (mid1988-1994). Amongst multivitamin users (pooling all folate categories) the risk declined with duration of use: 1.02 (4 years use), 0.83 (5-9yrs), 0.80 (10-14 yrs) & 0.25 (15+ yrs). Women who had 15+ years of multivitamin use and >300 g/d energy-adjusted folate (in 1980) had a RR of only 0.22[CI: 0.05-0.88] compared with users with <15 years multivitamin use and 201-300 g/d (>RDA) of energy-adjusted folate. FDA regulations forbad the use of 400g of folate in multivitamin supplements prior to 1973, which limited the ability for a longer term follow-up. The study abstract concludes: "Long-term use of multivitamins may substantially reduce risk for colon cancer. This effect may be related to the folic acid contained in multivitamins."

Cheers, Michael C Price

http://mcp.longevity-report.com

http://www.hedweb.com/manworld.htm


Subject: [LongevityReport] Calorie restriction, resveratrol, mitochondria and Pinot Noir

From: "John de Rivaz" <John@deRivaz.com>

I have actually altered the order of the links in the copy below because I wanted to comment on the Resveratrol articles.

I looked up the Life Extension Foundation's (LEF) version of Resveratrol, and observed that there are differences between it and the Longevinex product recommended here. (click on LEF link and put resveratrol in the search box, and get 199 links, the first few being to their product.)

It would be interesting if the LEF product could be tested by Dr Sinclair's laboratory. On the face of it, it appears very much the better product if its capsules are also air tight. I wouldn't be surprised if all LEF's encapsulated products are in air tight capsules and this could be so much a matter of course to them that they don't feel it worth mentioning.

The relevant part of the Longevinex web article is:

At this point I was disappointed, but challenged. The public needs resveratrol. The next step was to find a technology that could preserve resveratrol like a bottle of wine does. That technology was provided by Capsugel®, a division of Pfizer, which produces air-tight capsules for liquid dietary supplements called Licaps®. The rest is history. The world's first stabilized resveratrol dietary supplement is soon to hit the marketplace. It is a combination pill featuring resveratrol with quercetin and a natural preservative found in rice bran (patent pending). To find out more about this breakthrough, go to www.longevinex.com.

LEF Longevinex
No of capsules/pack 60 30
mg Resveratrol/capsule 20 15
mg grape extract/capsule 200 100
mg Quercetin/capsule 120 75
mg rice bran/capsule quantity not stated 25
mg Emodin Complex
per capsule
2 not present
mg Lecithin/capsule none 100
Air tight capsule? not stated YES
price $ 22.13 ( per bottle,
members, 4 bottles)
30 ( per pack,
3 packs)
price per mg of
resveratrol
1.8 cents 6.7 cents

Sincerely, John de Rivaz:

http://John.deRivaz.com for websites

----- Original Message -----

From: "emersonnyu" <emersonnyu@yahoo.com>

Here are a few articles that may be of interest to members of this group:

According to a Cornell University study, you should drink Pinot Noir for best resveratrol content:

http://www.drfrankwines.com/reference/USNews-redwine.html

Report on development of biologically stable and active resveratrol supplement:

http://www.askbillsardi.com/sdm.asp?pg=resv

http://www.longevinex.com/sdm.asp

Role of mitochondria DNA mutations in aging and Bruce Ames' suppliment formula (Juvenon) for retarding the deterioration:

http://www.juvenon.com/journal/vol3no07.htm

Early results from evaluation of humans on Calore Restricted High Nutrition diet:

http://www.juvenon.com/journal/vol3no05.htm