ISSN 0964-5659

Longevity Report 48

Volume 6 no 48. First published December 1994. ISSN 0964-5659.

Letters: What Others Think of Us. Estate Planning. Bagula's "Cross" Freeze an d dry later

Liquid Nitrogen Storage - A Reply R.C.W. Ettinger

Free Radicals and Disease John V. Vilkaitis

From XXX to Chinchilla. Yvan Bozzonetti

Aphrodisiacs Douglas Skrecky

Women In Cryonics - Some Thoughts from a Relative Newcomer Chrissie Loveday

Financing Cryonics with Real Estate. Yvan Bozzonetti

Aggressive Atheism Charles Bradlaugh

Atomic Printers Or Time Estimation Of Atom-by-atom Brain Assembling Dr Michael Soloviov

More Dental Pharmacology Douglas Skrecky

Suggestions For Russian Permafrost Burial Project Douglas Skrecky

Give Yourself Muscle with Creatine Brian W. Haines

IQ Type Mutagens May Be The Major Dietary Carcinogens Douglas Skrecky


What Others Think of Us

Writing in New Hope International, Mr Craig Walls says:

Brian W. Haines contributes four articles and a letter to issue 25 and a further seven articles are by just four writers. There's a lot about Terra Libra, a sort of earthbound free association of individual libertarians who've set up their own global society. Aim seems to be to live for ever thanks to cryogenic (sic) freeze-drying. Who they kidding? Only themselves, I fear.


I must agree that the lack of diversity of authors is a problem, and at the same time I must express my gratitude to those who continuously send us their material.

The last three sentences of the comment I feel reflect on the writer rather than Longevity Report. No doubt had he lived earlier he would have been in the majority who at one time thought the world is flat.

Reciprocal Advertisement:

International Planning Concepts, a quarterly ideasletter about tax, estate and asset planning, economics, politics and society. PO Box 107, Douglas, Isle of Man IM99 1JF, British Isles.

In fact I would have been pleased to mention this quarterly newsletter even if they hadn't offered to advertise Longevity Report free in exchange. Their advice will be invaluable for anyone wanting to set up cryonics arrangements or even just plan their affairs to keep out of the clutches of probate lawyers and death tax enforcers. I have seen the first two issues and can highly recommend it.

United States readers will be particularly interested in their ideas, which give a different angle to many similar newsletters offered in the USA. They also show the way into European financial institutions that are well outside US jurisdiction.

From Mrs Joy Cass

Of all the Longevity Reports you have sent me, no 47 wins, hands down, for the beauty of its cover. (Not shown on Internet edition) The Bagula Set - a fractal by Roger Bagula <>- interested me enormously, for plainly, (whether intended or inadvertent) the dominant feature is a cross (for me, personally the Cross), the focal point in Christianity. An interesting word: my Complete Word Finder: (by Readers' Digest) gives it - and its many attachments - three columns!!

I apologise for not writing before - being 80 is a time consuming business!

From Mr Douglas Skrecky:

I agree with Mr. Bozzonetti's comments in his Freeze (Partial) Drying article regarding the frailty of conventional cryonic suspension in the face of social disruption. Add in a few financial problems (only one cryonics company is currently not losing money) plus the extremely long period of suspension required for reanimation technology to be developed and you have a recipe for disaster.

A disaster which I think could be avoided by paying Murphy's law its due and planning ahead of time on how to deal with cryonic failure. Many individuals who wished to be frozen, instead were either buried or cremated because of a failure to plan ahead for the end. Similarly I suspect that cryonics companies themselves would be well advised to plan ahead or they may suffer a similar fate.

Indeed there is some evidence that some such planning is being contemplated. With regard to the possibility of disruption of liquid nitrogen supply at least one cryonics company is considering purchasing equipment to manufacture liquid nitrogen when finances permit.

However it is obvious to anyone that has looked seriously at the alternatives that the only preservation methods capable of yielding truly safe and inexpensive longterm storage involve desiccation. Mr. Bozzonetti's suggestion for dehydrating patients with a copal bath is somewhat similar to a preservation technique called freeze substitution. With freeze substitution frozen tissue is rapidly dehydrated at below zero temperatures with an organic solvent such as alcohol or acetone, which also contains some aldehyde fixative additives. These volatile solvents are then replaced with liquid plastic monomers, which infiltrate tissue, polymerize and then harden. The result no longer requires refrigerating.

A better alternative might be to replace liquid cryoprotectants such as glycerol with solid cryoprotectants such as sugars before cryonic suspension. With the much higher glass transition of these sugars protecting frozen tissue, longterm storage could then be contemplated using dry ice instead of liquid nitrogen. Freeze-drying could then be accomplished "for free" during such frozen storage. When it is completed refrigeration would also no longer be required.

A still better (but as yet hypothetical) alternative might be to fill the cardiovascular system with a liquid having a very low freezing point immediately prior to freezing. After the tissue is frozen the liquid could then be pumped out of the cardiovascular system. Very quick desiccation would then be possible by using the veins, arteries and capillaries as drying interfaces. The surface area of these amount to over 300 times that of the entire external body surface and would cover a football field if stretched out in one continuous layer.

Second Letter:

Robert Ettinger raises some points challenging Yvan Bozzoneti's assertion that liquid nitrogen is a poor revival bet because revival technology is likely hundreds of years in the future. I would like to comment on one of these points.

Ettinger states: "The pessimistic (long) time estimate is just a guess. Against this we must weigh the KNOWN FACT that liquid nitrogen storage does less damage than the other types of storage mentioned, freeze drying and chemical preservation."

Here it seems we are given a choice between:

Option #1.

Liquid nitrogen storage is riskier over the long haul, but is less damaging so reanimation technology will not take as long to develop.

Option #2.

Freeze drying or chemical preservation is safer over the long haul, but is more damaging so reanimation technology will take longer to develop. The choice is either/or, with no middle ground. I would like to propose a third option which offers the benefits of both options and suffers from none of the disadvantages.

Option #3:

Freeze now. Freeze dry later on if things do not work out. Like option #1 damage is minimized initially. Unlike option #1 if liquid nitrogen storage becomes impossible there exists an alternative to complete destruction. Like option #2 freeze now/freeze dry later is safer over the long term. It is not dependant on liquid nitrogen alone. As long as there is some advance warning patients can be converted over to the freeze dry option at any time. Unlike option #2 the damage of freeze drying is never incurred unless the alternative is complete destruction.

Currently none of the patients stored in liquid nitrogen are candidates for the third option. Low molecular weight "liquid" cryprotectants such as DMSO and glycerol prohibit successful freeze drying. To achieve this one has to use higher molecular weight "solid" cryoprotectants such as glucose, sucrose and trehalose which hydrogen bond to organic molecules to stabilize them in the dry state at room temperature.

Option #3 looks to be superior to either options #1 or #2. Implimenting this would however require some changes in cryonic procedures.

Liquid Nitrogen Storage - A Reply

by R.C.W. Ettinger

Yvan Bozzonetti thinks liquid nitrogen storage is a poor bet because revival technology is likely to be hundreds of years in the future and there would probably be an interruption of liquid nitrogen supply--if not collapse of the storage organization--in that time.

This reasoning seems very dubious to me in several ways:

1. The pessimistic (long) time estimate is just a guess. Against this we must weigh the KNOWN FACT that liquid nitrogen storage does less damage than the other types of storage mentioned, freeze drying and chemical preservation.

2. Although there have indeed been many social/political/economic upheavals in recent centuries, there have also been examples of relative stability, especially in the U.S. and Britain. Thomas Donaldson used the example of the graves at Canterbury.

3. If you want to envision disasters, how much do you really gain by using shelf storage instead of cryogenic storage? If society collapses and vandals run wild, any storage building might be destroyed, whether it contained cryostats or just dried, embalmed bodies. On the other hand, if you don't have a conspicuous storage building run by an organization, but instead use small, private storage, dangers seem even greater. If you use permafrost storage or other storage in remote areas there might be less danger of deliberate destruction or vandalization, but much more danger of the site being simply forgotten and ultimately destroyed by natural processes.

4. There are many steps we can take to reduce risks with cryogenic storage. Eventually we can have our own energy sources (ideally based on thermopiles) and our own liquid nitrogen generators or refrigerator/cryostats.

The Cryonic Institute's new building can probably hold 500 patients in liquid nitrogen. If we reach that number in the next 50 years, our patient care fund will exceed $10,000,000--probably twice that, based on likely average suspension funding (voluntary funding above the minimum). Because of economies of scale, and the new rigid, open-cell foam insulation we expect to have, this will be much more than needed for maintenance, and the excess could be used to increase self-sufficiency in various ways--if this has not been previously done. (Space and time prevent much more detailed discussion right now.)

5. Finally, we should remember--and this should further bolster our motivation--that the very existence of the cryonics program will in itself tend to reduce the likelihood of social/political/economic disasters. Immortalism is a stabilizing influence. People with long time horizons are not reckless or pathological.

Henry Ford said "History is bunk!"--and he was partly right. Some themes tend to be repeated, but there is always something new that makes history partly irrelevant. Immortalism is one of those new things.

Free Radicals and Disease

by John V. Vilkaitis

Introduction by John de Rivaz:

I wrote the following on Internet's Longevity listserver.

I saw mention [on Internet's Longevity listserver mailing list] of the fact that free radicals have a useful role in dealing with diseases, presumably exterminating viruses and bacteria.

It was also mentioned in Arthur Hailey's novel about the drugs industry, Strong Medicine. In the novel, a fictitious anti-oxidant was withdrawn because people got infections when using it. I had wondered when reading it whether the whole idea about there being any benefit in free radicals was entirely fictitious. Yet we are told, and I have personally experienced, that taking vitamins in large doses, such as Life Extension Mix, helps prevent infections. Can someone explain this?

A response came as follows, and I have been given permission to reproduce it here, which permission is gratefully acknowledged.

Taking free radical scavengers has an interesting effect on the immune system.

1. If they are stale, like spent vitamin C -- dehydroascorbic acid, then it will have the reverse effect and provide a sink for free electrons rather than a source for them as Ascorbic acid does. All these things are kind of balanced, with the reactions going both ways, but one direction being somewhat more prevalent than the other.

I and my father both had cold sore outbreaks when the vitamin C we bought turned out bad. (Many non-health food stores store it in the attic or wherever. moisture+heat+oxygen+c = dehydroascorbic acid, spoiled C. Without the oxygen, I hear it becomes honey... but other ingredients may be required. I know some one to ask if anyone is Seriously Interested.)

2. Good C closes down some of the antibodies by reducing the disulphide bond. This reduces autoimune problems. In areas of infection, phagocytes and bacteria produce enough free radicals (in most cases) to open the bonds and activate the antibodies. This is the way the antibody system is supposed to work. In autoimmune disease, the antibodies are open, armed, in the wrong places and cross react with your own tissues. Dr. Cathcart said that 60% of the immune system function in a healthy person is used to mop up large molecules which leak through the gut. Some dairy and beef products are similar enough, that antibodies generated to mop them up will, in persons with low levels of antioxidants, cross react with joint tissues.

The decay of antibodies and the nature of the immune system is such that if you rotate your diet, that is, not eat foods with similar macromolecules, (food families, e.g. the parsley family includes carrots, anise, parsnips, etc.) more often than once every four to seven days, the immune system does not put out that many antibodies to those foods. Many allergy symptoms then go away... (See The Yeast Syndrome by Towbridge and Walker for a typical rotation protocol.)

3. The increased availability of un-spent antibodies results in an active "bio-war" in infected areas, resulting in the appearance of a "new" infection where there was a low level infection that was not being dealt with.

From XXX to Chinchilla.

by Yvan Bozzonetti.

Nearly everywhere, women live longer than men. The fact is attributed to the fundamental female form of all mammal species. More strange yet, men living with a woman live longer than lone men. Why?

There are many explanations: A man with poor living status will survive less and be less attractive to women. The disabled and chronically ill have too a shorter life expectancy and less chance of retaining a woman. So therefore loneliness could be taken as a measure of the life expectancy. All of that is true, but can't account for all the discrepancy. Another factor must attribute some part to the observed results.

At first sight, for men, women have a cost on physiological grounds, without any benefit (the same may be often true on the money side!). Why is the reality opposite of this simple observation? Psychological return and the like are, at least, unconvincing. There is nevertheless a physiological return for men produced by women, it is the vaginal secretion produced by the Bartholin glands. Its use falls at the limit of the X domain but constitute nevertheless a largely spread sexual practice.

That physiological fluid is very rich in antibodies and possess some healing properties. Some cancers seems now linked to an interaction between a pollutant such as rock wool and some viruses such the simian SV40 introduced in old poliomyelitis vaccines. Antibodies form a good weapon against viruses. A product able to kill them would be very useful. Antibodies can glue and kill abnormal cells, there may be some day an antibody-based drug against senescence.

For most mammals and indeed, most animal species, sex implies a high cost: By-products of sexual hormones play a dirty business in the senescence game. The main antibody value of the Bartholin glands may come from special products able to wipe out "sex hormone cinders".

Rats on a low caloric diet live longer because they have a longer juvenile period. That limit their exposure to sex hormones and give them an extra time to live. Man is a master in that domain: Without starvation, he manage to remain in an immature state for a very long period (adding a low calories programme can't buy more time on a significant scale).

The real solution would not to search an escape from the hormone's by-products, but a way to get ride of them. An antibody able to select these molecules could wipe out them before they can do any damage.

In this respect, chinchillas look very interesting, as many small mammals, they are active, reproduce fast and die young. At least, this is one possibility. Their sexual maturity comes at 3 months and they can hope to live up to two years in a region with many predators. If nothing come to disturb them, they can live for 18 - 20 years, up to eighty times their sexual majority. In a chinchilla colony up to sixty generations can live together, if that was true of man, an "Oldtimer" could speak about the fall of the Roman Empire, when he was a child.

Chinchillas are very active and at the age of 18, each of their cells has burned as much energy as what can do its human counterpart in more than 150 years. Clearly, men and chinchillas have solved the same problem in two very different ways: Man uses an escape tactic and the chinchilla an antidote. Because saliva contains a large antibody concentration, to be licked by an army of chinchillas may be the best thing in the world.

Outside the common chinchilla, there is a larger relative living in South America's mountains. At 1.5 kg it is not really a big animal but can nevertheless looks promising as an antibody source.

Far more interesting is the viscacha, a large ground squirrel easy to tame. Some centuries ago, the viscachas was very common but over hunting has put them on the verge of extinction. To get some usable subjects implies at least some cautions: The stress induced by a capture may well destroy or destabilize the immune system, so that a caged animal would reveal itself worthless. Most animals in a natural setting are heavily burdened by parasites and chronic infections, to use their saliva is at least a hazardous enterprise. Only a second generation living in a "civilized environment" may be safe.

One interesting possibility is to extract the relevant product from the saliva by ultracentrifugation, but any handling or chemical treatement must be kept at a minimum. The antibodies act on derivative of sex hormones and so must be fine tuned. If the problem was simple, all species would use that protective system. Any denaturation of the original product could be very harmful and act as a powerful chemical castrative agent.

Who will farm viscachas? The return could be very important, both in life extension and money. Next time you go to the zoo, look at the South America ground squirrel: that small grey beast may be the fountain of youth able to double your lifespan!

Editorial Comment:

This article is likely to be controversial. However others are thinking along the same lines.

The increasing sale of Saw Palmetto Extract by health food dealers such as Nature's Best aims to reduce the unwanted byproducts of male sexuality, thus preventing prostate problems that could lead to the need for surgery.

I would however advise people NOT to self experiment by ingesting fluids from other humans and animals. Such fluids could be highly dangerous even if they do contain beneficial substances. The correct approach is for people with the knowledge and equipment to experiment with and separate out the desirable substances for use in life extension products. Once isolated, these substances can be created in pure controlled conditions using biotechnology. They can then be subjected to safety and efficacy trials before being administered to people.


by Douglas Skrecky

Several drugs have been found to exert aphrodisiac effects. Dopamine agonists such as l-dopa, pergolide mesylate, amantadine, apomorphine, nomifensine and bupropion seem to be useful in some cases of sexual dysfunction, but the presence of side effects limits clinical application. The alpha-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine at a dosage of about 20 mg/day also seems to help and does not offer as much in the way of side effects as dopamine agonists. Serotonergic drugs such as trazodone, fenfluramine and clomipramine are more powerful aphrodisiacs, but again the presence of side effects limits their use. Some preliminary research indicates that the cholinergic agent bethanechol works quite well with little in the way of side effects.1 However until more work is done on this substance the best recommendation for an aphrodisiac would (in my opinion) seem to be yohimbine. The major side effect of yohimbine is a mild increase in blood pressure.

1 Prosexual Drugs: Empirical Status of the New Aphrodisiacs Vol.22 No.6 1993 Archives of Sexual Behaviour

Women In Cryonics

Some Thoughts

from a Relative Newcomer

by Chrissie Loveday

I read Mae Ettinger's article in October's Immortalist, with interest. A traditional female role in society may well be that of procreator, while that of men is the hunter/gatherer. In the UK, there are movements towards the greater involvement of men in the process of child birth all the way through. It is being suggested that fathers are possibly to be allowed a three month work break to assist with new babies and do their own share of bonding. I really don't see how we can sustain two parents taking leave for such a period, but then I am of the generation that was pleased if father could take a few days off out of the annual leave. Still, I guess it would be good, in an idealistic world.

This indicates to me that there are changes taking place in the stereotype family. Many females are beginning to earn more than their partners, giving opportunity for them to play greater roles in making major financial decisions for families. So far, it seems that it is not young family people who are moving towards cryonic suspension and the low numbers of female participants is more to do with this than other considerations. Career minded females would give little thought to such a proposition when they have to beat the competition for jobs and often family commitments take over any spare capacity after that. Unless a female works in an environment where cryonics is likely to be discussed, they can only reach information through random media spots...the occasional TV show put out at a time when they are able to view and not the day-time slots that seem to be favoured.

When I have spoken about cryonics in my own work place, many people are quite fascinated that such an ordinary person can be so involved. I like to think I am respected for doing a good job and colleagues then think it less peculiar that I should have such ambitions. One even said she thought I was very brave but I wasn't sure whether she meant the cryonic involvement or the fact that I had appeared on TV! As I said, leaving the answer deliberately confused, if you are not scared of something it is never brave to confront it. Besides, as I keep saying, it's less scary than burning.

I remain uncertain as to why people think that it is stranger for a female to have plans to be suspended than a male. Though it is often usual for a woman to have to fight harder for equality, things are improving generally. As a member of the teaching profession, (I used to teach a traditionally female subject, namely Home Economics) I rarely encountered the need to fight for equality. There were, in those days, no men to challenge my role and I was a departmental head for many years, as equal as most and more equal than others! Perhaps it is my attitude of mind that allows me to see no real difference and therefore do not see myself a peculiar in any way. The media still seem to think I should be an object of interest, just because I am a woman and want suspension at the end.

Interestingly, one national TV network decided to pull the plugs only days before my latest extravaganza because Cryonic Suspension is unsuitable for putting out early in the evening. Not as informative as spontaneous human combustion, haunted houses and war sites or several unsolved murders, it seems. Why do people feel so reticent to talk about death, when murder thrillers and films where everyone beats hell out of each other are quite acceptable? In a recent lecture I was talking about bereavement and how to handle it.

One member of my group began to cry for the first time since a close friend had died. Naturally, I was concerned for her, but she said it was wonderful to actually talk about it and begin to grieve openly for the first time. She had had no-one to talk to about it before and a group session had relieved pressure that had been building for many weeks.

Obviously, one must not become obsessed with death or there would be little point in even attempting to return one day. Let's face it, it may not work! But to treat death as a natural part of life ought to be easier for everyone.

Could it be that I am not quite as ordinary as I think?

Financing Cryonics with Real Estate.

by Yvan Bozzonetti

In Cryonet message 3266 Robert Ettinger said, to summarize: I accept the bad side of cryonics financing with bequests, but not the good side, that is the possibility to get short term return for financing researches. At least it is what I see between the lines. If I can understand CI has not the financial power to launch a real estate subsidiary, I think the concept would get more attention.

Here is a practical case: I have a rented flat on sea shore valued now at some $60,000 and the death-incapacity insurance cost me less than $10 per month, far under the price of a life insurance for even half my flat value. To buy a garanty on a loan is so far cheaper than a life insurance for direct cryonics financing. Even if the sum was equal, they would make a big difference: The loan insurance price is included in a monthly cost covered by the rent. Yes, all is not always perfect, I have a squatter in another flat running a debt of up to $4,000 and I have no hope to recover a (half destructed flat) before the debt runs in the $7,000. As a reaction I am turning all my real estate business to a process server.

Even with this problem, I think real estate is a good possibility, marketing cost are high in this activity, if that share of the cost can be deleted or far reduced because the buyers are selected nearly without cost by cryonics interest, then the profit would be wellcome for much needed researches. (another way to see the same thing: marketing costs are not suppressed but the expanse is done to promote cryonics).

If a "hard core" of potential cryonics users are ready to buy before actual construction, then the scheme can get started. One remark: there are many people looking at ways to get money from their computer, why not use them to find potential customer? If they find them, they get a return, if not they pay the communication bill and there is no marketing cost. I am sorry not be in position to "exploit" the idea myself in a french cryonics society, but the law here probably the next bad after the British Columbia one.

Aggressive Atheism

by Charles Bradlaugh

This is an editorial by English Atheist Charles Bradlaugh which appeared in The Investigator newspaper of November 1,1858.

We are investigators, and our policy is to as certain facts and present them to our readers in clear and distinct language. If we find a mind bound round with Creeds and Bibles, we will select a sharp knife to cut the bonds; if we find men prostrating themselves, without inquiry, before idols, our policy is iconoclastic -- we will destroy those idols. If we find a rock in our path, we will break it; but we will not quarrel with our brother who deems his proper work to be that of polishing the fragments. We believe all the religions of the world are founded on error, in the ignorance of natural causes and material conditions, and we deem it our duty to endeavour to expose their falsity. Our policy is therefore aggressive. We are, at present, of opinion that there is much to do in the mere clod-crushing sphere, in uprooting upas trees [moraceous tree with poisonous milky sap], hewing down creed-erected barriers between man and man and generally in negating the influence of the priest. Our policy is of humble character; we are content to be axe bearers and pioneers, cutting down this obstacle and clearing away that. We respect the sower who delights in the positive work of scattering seed on the ground, but we fear that the weeds destroy much of the fruit of his labours. . . .

There is no middle ground between Theism and Atheism. The genuineness and authenticity of the Scriptures are questions relevant to Secularism. It is as necessary for the Secularist to destroy Bible influences as for the farmer to endeavour to eradicate the chickweed from his clover field. We appeal to those who think our work fairly done to aid us in our labours; to those who will not work with us we simply say, do not hinder us.

Our only wish and purpose is to make men happy, and this is because in so doing we increase our own happiness. The secret of true happiness and wisdom lies in the consciousness that you are working to the fullest of your ability to make your fellows happy and wise. Man can never be happy until he is free; free in body and mind; free in thought and in utterance; free from crowns and creeds, from priest, from king; free from the cramping customs created by the influences surrounding him, and which have taught him to bow to a lord and frown upon a beggar. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity! That true liberty, which infringes not the freedom of my brother; that equality which recognizes no nobleman but the men of noble thoughts and noble deeds; that fraternity which links the weak arm-in-arm with the strong, and, teaching humankind that union is strength, compels them to fraternize, and links them together in that true brotherhood for which we strive.

Text prepared and distributed by American Atheist Online Services, P O Box 140195, Austin, TX 78714-0195 USA.

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Atomic Printers

Or Time Estimation Of

Atom-by-atom Brain Assembling

by Michael Soloviov

1. Introduction

I try to estimate the time that some future technology will need in the case if a suspended patient will be reanimated by reconstruction:

(1) the frozen body will be "scanned" to define the location and type of all atoms in the body;

(2) this information will be processed to correct all possible mistakes and to modify the atomic structure of body in order to cure diseases and to do feasible its thawing (e.g. to modify the ice structure from solid state to amorphous);

(3) this processed information will be used by some STM-derived device to assemble the body atom-by-atom (here I estimate only this step as the most crucial one);

(4) the reconstructed body will be thawed.

This approach differs from Merkle's1 and Drexler's2:

(1) not the molecular repair -- but the atomic reconstruction;

(2) not the assemblers -- but a big number of STM-like needles united in matrix.

2. Facts, Assumptions, and Calculations

(1) Brain volume (assumption): Vb = 10-3m3.

(2) Brain weight (assumption): Wb = 1 kg.

(3) Atomic mass unit (amu): 1 amu = 1.66 * 10-27 kg.

(4) Numerical atomic composition of the body3 and atomic weights (only for the main atoms):


Atom Weight (amu) % in the body


H 1.0 60.6

O 16.0 25.7

C 12.0 10.7

N 14.0 2.4

Ca 40.1 0.2


(5) Average weight of atom of the human body (calculated from (4)):

Wa = 6.44 amu = 1.069 * 10-26 kg.

(6) Number of atoms in the brain: Na = Wb / Wa = 1026.

(7) Average distance between atoms (calculated from (1) & (6)):

La = 0.215 nm.

(8) Real distances between atoms in proteins vary from 0.1 to 0.3 nm3,6] (valency/non-valency links, distance in nm, "-" - no link in proteins)




H | - /0.20 0.10/0.24 0.11/0.24 0.10/0.24

O | * - /0.28 0.12/0.28 0.14/0.27

C | * * 0.15/0.32 0.14/0.29

N | * * * 0.14/0.27


(9) Reasonable time to assemble the brain (assumption): Tb = 107s (about 4 months).

(10) Assembling speed to assemble the brain for Tb:

Sb = Na / Tb = 1019 atoms/s.

(11) Assume that 1 2D layer of atoms contain 2*1017atoms =>

Sb = 50 layers/s => time to assemble 1 layer: Tl = 0.02 s.

(12) How many bits to describe 1 atom at 0.01 nm precision

In case of using absolute coordinates we need about 100 bits per atom1. However it is possible to use relative coordinates. Assuming that atoms can not be closer than 0.1 nm we need 6 bits per coordinate for distances from -0.41 to 0.42 nm (it is possible to insert "void" atoms for the longer distances). Using 6 bits to describe the type of atom we need 24 bits total. Moreover it is possible to compress this information. I reached 10% compression using the PKZIP archive software for the file contained information about 100,000 randomly distributed atoms and 15% compression for the limited range of X coordinate. Thus about 20 bits per atom (or even letter) is enough to describe 1 atom of the human body.

3. Needle Matrix Printer

(1) Hypothetical printing (assembling) process

(Step 1 A)         A     B
          . . . ============= . . . . . . . . . .
                  \ /   \ /                         
                   V     V                           of the
A needle
the source
                NNOOHH  C  H  NNCCHH O   N
          . . . ------ ------ ------ ------ . . .
                 (S)    (D)    (S)    (D)

(Step 2 A)         A     B
          . . . ============= . . . . . . . . . .
                  \ /   \ /                          The A
                   V     V                          
captures an atom
                NNO HH  C  H  NNCCHH O   N
          . . . ------ ------ ------ ------ . . .
                 (S)    (D)    (S)    (D)

(Step 3 A)             A     B     --->
          . . . . . ============= . . . . . . . .
                      \ /   \ /                      The
atom is
                       V     V                      
transported from
                   o...O..o                          the
source to the
                NNO HH  C  H  NNCCHH O   N          
          . . . ------ ------ ------ ------ . . .
                 (S)    (D)    (S)    (D)

(Step 4 A)                A     B
           . . . . . . ============= . . . . . .
                         \ /   \ /                   Fine
                          V     V                    of the
A needle
                          O                          over
the destination
                NNO HH  C  H  NNCCHH O   N
          . . . ------ ------ ------ ------ . . .
                 (S)    (D)    (S)    (D)

(Step 5 A)                A     B
           . . . . . . ============= . . . . . .
                         \ /   \ /                   The A
                          V     V                   
releases the atom

                NNO HH  C OH  NNCCHH O   N
          . . . ------ ------ ------ ------ . . .
                 (S)    (D)    (S)    (D)

(Step 1 B)                A     B
           . . . . . . ============= . . . . . .
                         \ /   \ /                  
                          V     V                    of the
B needle
the source
                NNO HH  C OH  NNCCHH O   N
          . . . ------ ------ ------ ------ . . .
                 (S)    (D)    (S)    (D)

(Step 2 B) - (Step 5 B): The same as (Step 2 A) - (Step 5 A)
-- only the B needle is active and the atoms are transported
in the back direction (right to left). Then these steps are
repeated until the brain is assembled.

  (D) - destination: surface of brain piece
  (S) - source: surface of piece of "row" atoms
  A,B - needles
  H,C,O,N - atoms

(2) The needle trace to place 1 atom (top view,

    Source            Atom transportation     Destination
    positioning                               positioning

        20 nm                1 mcm               0.2 nm
    <------------> <------------------------> <--------->

    S....C..................................... ... ... F  
                                              : : : : : :  
                                              : : : : : :  
| 0.2 nm
   [HHHHCCCCOOONNN]                           : : : : R :  
                                              :.: :.: :.:  

                                                   0.01 nm

  S  - start of the needle movement
  F  - finish of the needle movement
  C  - here the atom was captured (for example)
  R  - here the atom was released (for example)
[..] - atom distribution on the source surface (for example)

(3) C & R places are controlled by the electric pulses fed
individually to each needle during uniform movement of
needle matrix over the source/destination. The place where
the atom was captured defines the kind of atom.

(4) The needle start position is shifted 0.2 nm forward or
aside to place the next atom. The following figure is the
map of start positions to place 12 atoms (for example):

    1---2---3---4  ^
                |  | 0.2 nm
    8---7---6---5  v

     0.2 nm

(5) Printer side view (fragment)

. . . ===================================== . . .
       ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
      | (S) | (D) | (S) | (D) | (S) | (D) |         (S)
moves up
      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
       ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----          (D)
moves down
         ^     |     ^     |     ^     |                to
be "glued"
         |     |     |     |     |     |
               |           V           |
               |   ----- ----- -----   |
               -->| (D) | (D) | (D) |<--
                  |     |     |     |
                   ----- ----- -----
                               1 mcm

(6) Printer: top view

        ^   --------------------------------------
        |  |::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::|
        |  |::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::<-------- 2D
needle array
        |  |::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::|          
  10 cm |  |::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::|
        |  |::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::|        
        |  |::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::|     2*10 
        |  |::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::|
        v   --------------------------------------

                            20 cm
(7) Printer: top view under the needle array (fragment)

    -----------------------------------------   ^
    |///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|   |
    |///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|   |
    |///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|   |
    |/S/|\D\|/S/|\D\|/S/|\D\|/S/|\D\|/S/|\D\|   |  10 cm
    |///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|   |
    |///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|   |
    |///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|   |
    |///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|///|\\\|   |
    -----------------------------------------   v
    <--->       <--->
     1 mcm       1 mcm

(8) If such variant of the printer is too large it is possible to split it into smaller devices. It is also possible to change oscillatory movement to rotatory or to combine them.

(9) Distance between needles: Ln = 100 nm.

(10) Distance between atoms: La = 0.2 nm.

(11) Atom position precision (grid step): Lg = 0.01 nm.

(12) Number of destination positions: Nd = ( La / Lg )2 = 400.

(13) Atom transport distance (between source and destination): Lt' = 1 mcm.

(14) Path length over the source to select and capture atoms: Ls' = 20 nm.

(15) Path for needle to go during the fine positioning over destination:

Ld' = La * La / Lg = 4 nm.

(16) Number of atoms to transport (to print) by 1 needle during assembling

of 1 layer: Nl = ( Ln / La )2 = 2.5 * 105 .

(17) Transport path for needle to go during assembling of 1 layer:

Lt = Lt' * Nl = 10-6 * 2.5 * 105 = 2.5 * 10-1

m = 25 cm.

(18) Source path for needle to go during assembling of 1 layer:

Ls = Ls' * Nl = 20 * 10-9 * 2.5 * 105 = 5 * 10-3 m = 5 mm.

(19) Destination path for needle to go during assembling of 1 layer:

Ld = Ld' * Nl = 4 * 10-9 * 2.5 * 105 = 10-3 m = 1 mm.

(20) Transport time to assemble 1 layer (assumption): Tt = 0.5 * Tl = 0.01 s.

(21) Destination position time to assemble 1 layer (assumption):

Td = 0.5 * Tl = 0.01 s.

(22) Source position time to assemble 1 layer (assumption):

Ts = 0.01 * Tl = 0.0002 s.

(23) Transport speed: St = Lt / Tt = 2.5 * 10-1 /10-2 = 25 m/s.

(24) Destination position speed: Sd = Ld / Td = 10-3 / 10-2 = 0.1 m/s.

(25) Source position speed: Ss = Ls / Ts = 5 * 10-3/2 * 10-4 = 25 m/s.

(26) Frequency of control modulation for destination positioning:

Fd = 1 / ( Td / (Nl * Nd) ) = 1010Hz = 10 GHz.

4. "Jet" Or Pipeline Printer

(1) Hypothetical printing processes:

(a) (S)

---------- Atoms "jump" from needle to needle.


/ A Notation: * - atoms; A,V,< - needles.

* <::

| <:: This is 1 "head". The printer is the array

* <:: of "heads".

\ V




(b) (S)

---------- Atoms move in nanotube.


/ \ The printer is the array of nanotubes.

| * |

| |

| * |

\ /




(c) The same as (b) but the source is a cold gas (plasma?) in chamber.

There could be 1 chamber per each type of atoms and the transport

nanotube system.

(2) The brain is assembled as the whole (no pieces, no "gluing").

(3) There is no "mechanical" movement to transport and to catch atoms -- the only movement is needed for destination position. Thus the speed and frequency calculations are as the following:

(4) Destination position time to assemble 1 layer: Td = Tl = 0.02 s.

(5) Frequency of control modulation: Fd = 5 GHz.

5. Laser Printer

Atoms are positioned by electromagnetic field (light)4,5. The current precision (line width) is 65 nm.


[1] R.C.Merkle. Molecular repair of the brain, Cryonics, Jan. & Apr. 1994.

[2] K.E.Drexler. Engines of Creation, 1986.

[3] M.V.Volkenstein. Biophysics, 1981 (in Russian).

[4] J.J.McClelland e.a. Laser-focused atomic deposition, Science, 5 Nov. 1993, p.877. (reprinted in The Immortalist, Jan. 1994, p.48).

[5] B.P.Stein. Atoms caught in a web of light, New Scientist, 29 Jan. 1994, p. 32. (It is more popular than [4] and contains the short survey of the problem).

[6] T.Clark. A Handbook of Computational Chemistry, 1985.

More Dental Pharmacology

by Douglas Skrecky

Tooth Brush Technology

The basics of dental health care consist of brushing the teeth with toothpaste and flossing. A number of companies provide the materials required for this such as toothbrushes, toothpaste and floss. Are there any differences in effectiveness between the various brands? Lets find out. A number of tests have found some toothbrushes to be superior to others in cleaning effectiveness. A recent study pitting all of these supposed superior dental instruments against each found that one of these beat the others by a significant margin. The contestants were the Colgate Precision, Crest Complete, Jordan Exact, Oral-B Advantage and Reach Advanced Design toothbrushes. The winner was ....... lets open the envelope here. The winner is the Oral-B Advantage toothbrush.1

Toothpastes containing triclosan have been found to be superior to ordinary toothpastes in reducing plaque. There are four toothpastes available which contain triclosan. They are Colgate Total, Crest Ultra, neoMentadent P and Pepsodent Ultra. When they were compared head to head one stood out from the others. The winner was Colgate Total toothpaste. This happened to be the only toothpaste which contained a copolymer to help retain triclosan on tooth surfaces.2

Oral massage devices have been marketed as an alternative to floss. Recently the Wiggly Pick was tested head to head against floss. The winner was Wiggley pick.3 Time to throw out the floss.

To sum up the only toothbrush worth considering is the Oral-B Advantage. The only toothpaste worth considering is Colgate Total. If you wish to try anything more pass up on the floss and try the Wiggley pick instead.


1 Two Long-Term Clinical Studies Comparing the Plaque Removal and Gingivitis Reduction Efficacy of the Oral-B Advantage Plague Remover to Five Manual Toothbrushes 46-53 Vol.5 1994 Journal of Clinical Dentistry

2 Recent Advances in Plaque, Gingivitis, Tartar and Caries Prevention Technology 63-70 Vol.44 1994 International Dental Journal

3 An Alternative to Dental Floss in a Personal Dental Hygiene Program 5-7 Vol.5 1994 Journal of Clinical Dentistry

Nsaids & Tooth Decay

Some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the growth of bacteria which can cause tooth decay. Which is the best?

To date only one test has compared the NSAID flurbiprofen with ibuprofen. These turned out to be equal in effectiveness for inhibiting the growth of bacteroides gingivalis. However for actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, bacterosides intermedius, eikenella corrodens, fusobacterium nucleatum and wolinella recta ibuprofen turned out to be more potent.1

It seems likely that the addition of ibuprofen to to dental products such as toothpastes, dental rinses and chewing gum would likely improve the dental health of the users of such products.

1 Antimicrobial Activity of Flurbiprofen and Ibuprofen In Vitro Against Six Common Periodontal Pathogens 1-5 Vol.3 1991 Journal of Clinical Dentistry

Suggestions For Russian Permafrost Burial Project

by Douglas Skrecky

Michael Soloviov's permafrost burial project in Russian Lapland might be better off if it started operations further east. According to my sources there exists only discontinuous permafrost in this area. Investing in a mineshaft or some such property to obtain an adequate burial site in Lapland might be more expensive than utilizing established cemeteries located east in the continuous permafrost zone. Judging from a map in an atlas there appears to be good transport conditions from the town of Konosha, south of Arkhangelsk to the city of Vorkuta, which lies northeast in the continuous permafrost zone.1 Presumably certain cemeteries in this area could be used as low cost burial sites.

If I am wrong in this here are some suggestions for finding islands of permafrost in Russian Lapland. In North America permafrost is found in peatlands far south of even the discontinuous permafrost zone.2 This is apparently due both to the insulating nature of peat in the summer and the fact that it is permeable to water vapour so that the permafrost can remain cool by sweating during the summer.3 If peatlands are not available try examining valley bottoms and north facing slopes. In Canada valley bottoms in the discontinuous permafrost zone remain frozen all year because of the tendency for cold air to sink into them during the winter. Northern slopes have generally also been found to be perennially frozen due to the reduced solar radiation these slopes receive during the summer.4 One could expect good results from mine shafts sunk into north facing slopes.

As an additional inexpensive measure one could increase the albedo of the ground surface to reflect more of the sun's radiation. For example white paint on asphaltic concrete increases albedo from 13% to 38% and has been proven to help lower ground temperature.5 For cemetery plots spreading some chalk or perlite on the ground would presumably have a similar effect.

Expensive techniques used for stabilizing permafrost in North America include the use of buried 90 mm polystyrene boards and passive refrigeration with thermosyphons, which consist of sealed pipes enclosing a refrigerant.6,7 The disadvantage of the former is that polystyrene is impermeable to water vapour and so one would expect better results with permeable insulations of equivalent R value. The disadvantage of thermosyphons is that if they ever develop a leak the cooling effect provided during the winter would be lost. A better, more long lasting alternative would be to use a permeable insulation such as perlite, vermiculite or even peat as when these freeze in the winter their insulating value is reduced so that the ground temperature could then be lowered by thermal conduction from the cold winter air. It is only during the summer that insulation is desired, during the winter it is counterproductive.

In my opinion teaming desiccation with permafrost burial makes more sense as a business proposition than offering permafrost burial by itself. Food kept frozen at temperatures typical of permafrost deteriorates at rates many orders of magnitude faster than dried rations. Desiccation plus permafrost burial is thus a vastly more desirable preservation technique than using just permafrost alone and so this service could be sold at a significantly higher price to prospective clients. Considering the fixed transportation costs to Russia I suspect that only a "deluxe" permafrost burial service would attract much interest from foreigners. The costs associated with this enhanced service need not be much higher if an in-package desiccant such as calcium oxide is added to the time capsule to dry tissue inexpensively during long term storage.

Offering a range of services would increase the potential client base as well as possibly increase profitability. Taking a cue from the American cryonicists, the option to preserve just the head or brain apparently reduced storage costs by as much as an order of magnitude, while the price this service is sold at is just half that of full body preservation. If permafrost burial ever becomes a 'mainstream' funeral home offering I strongly suspect it will involve primarily the lowest cost and most profitable option of preservation of just the head or brain. After all, from the standpoint of future reanimation chances the rest of the body is just so much dead weight.


1 Climate Warming and the Carbon Cycle in the Permafrost Zone of the Former Soviet Union Vol.4 149-163 1993 Permafrost and Periglacial Processes

2 Cyclic Development of Permafrost in the Peatlands of Northwestern Alberta, Canada Vol.25 No.3 240-246 1993 Arctic and Alpine Research

3 What Makes Permafrost Permanent? Vol.81 527-528 1993 American Scientist

4 Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions Reported During Geotechnical Investigations in the Mayo District, Yukon Territory Vol.2 259-268 1991 Permafrost and Periglacial Processes

5 Effect of Color and Texture on the Surface Temperature of Asphalt Concrete Pavements July 17-22,1983 57-61 Fourth International Permafrost Conference

6 Performance of an Insulated Roadway on Permafrost Inuvik, N.W.T. July 17-22,1983 548-551 Fourth International Permafrost Conference

7 Using Passive Refrigeration to Stabilize Foundations in Cold Climates 32-37 September 1993 ASHRAE Journal

Give Yourself Muscle with Creatine

by Brian W. Haines

There is a diversity of opinion upon the meaning of fitness. There are those who would say being fit does not mean being healthy, while others insist that in order to be healthy you need to be fit.

Recent reports in the press regarding the training of athletes show that endless training does indeed seem to weaken a competitor rather than improving them. The spate of injuries suffered by leading sports people, to say nothing of the effects of viral illnesses shows just how delicate a mechanism the trained athlete is.

Until you come to examine a training programme it is difficult to understand why so many athletes seem to have such a high incidence of injury and sickness. But what seems to happen is that training is all to do with stretching and developing muscles and not with general health. Hesitance to disease and an improved constitution is not a major part of the plan.

One cannot therefore look towards Olympic sports training for an approach to general living. It is rather like the difference between the preparation of a formula one vehicle in the motor racing world and the average car maintenance needed to keep a workhorse on the road without a breakdown.

However there are some points of contact. The high precision tolerances and extensive research upon racing vehicles ultimately benefits the newer car in the manufacturing process. In the same way some discoveries in the world of sports medicine can bring benefits to the average person whose needs are at a lesser level.

One of the latest discoveries is that of Creatine. Creatine is a natural amino-acid which is part of the energy producing system in the body. In some respects it is like the fuel the muscles call upon when they do work. This fuel is stored in the body as phosphocreatine. It is used specifically for short intense bursts of energy. When long sustained effort is required the body turns to the anaerobic glycolytic and aerobic systems.

So the effectiveness of your ability to fight or take flight depends initially upon the phosphocreatine stored in your body. It has long been known that you can obtain stores of Creatine from eating meat and fish which is probably why primitive man went hunting for animals rather than vegetables. It a somewhat self imposed system, you need creatine to give you the energy to hunt for the animals which contain the creatine. In fact this is what happens in many active sports. The immediate bursts of energy required demand replacement of the creatine to enable you to give the energy for the sport.

Today Creatine is obtainable in tablet form. They are rather expensive working out at about 5Op per tablet and a five day course comes to about 5O.

Now what they can do is this. If you are feeling low on energy and suffer from fatigue at every exertion then adding Creatine to your diet should give you the added energy before becoming tired. Creatine is not a muscle builder in the way hormone and steroids are. Once you have reached the optimum of phosphocreatine your body can store then taking more has no effect. There is the probability you do not normally have enough so you would benefit from a course of tablets if you have extra physical work to perform.

It has to be remembered this is nothing to do with health or fitness. If you are hungry you need food, your muscles need their food too. Always keep in mind that however many exercise classes you attend, Yoga courses you follow or diets you follow, health and fitness are a very different matter.

Lean people may be subject to less heart attacks, non-smokers to less lung cancer and vegetarians to less chance of brain disease. The fact that amongst all these groups some people do become affected proves there is no sure way to measure health and fitness.

Creatine is not a universal panacea for lack of energy, what it can do is assist you to live at an optimum level effort without feeling too much strain.

IQ Type Mutagens May Be The Major Dietary Carcinogens

by Douglas Skrecky

What is the major dietary carcinogen? PhIP is the mutagen most commonly found in cooked proteins. However the mutagenic activity of MeIQx is two orders of magnitude higher than for PhIP, while that for IQ is even higher. An argument could be made that the dominant genotoxic risk factor in food is from IQ type mutagens.

Some foods, particularly raw fruits and vegetables contain factors which inhibit the activity of IQ type mutagens. Raw juices from bananas, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, pineapple and watermelon strongly inhibit these mutagens. Greengage, kiwi, mangoes, honeydew melons and plums offer moderate inhibition. Most vegetables retain little inhibitory activity when cooked, but there are a few exceptions. Cooked horseradish, kohlrabi and spinach show strong activity and cooked Brussels sprouts show moderate activity. The raw vegetables showing strong activity include beets, broccoli, cabbage (white & Savoy), cauliflower, celeriac, chives, green beans, onions, rhubarb and tomatoes. Red cabbage shows moderate activity.1 If IQ type mutagens are the dominant genotoxic risk factors one would expect that diets higher than average in the above food items would be associated with significantly reduced risk of death from cancer.

A small epidemiological survey associating the ingestion of specific fruits and vegetables with death of cancer has been completed. It is interesting to review the results. The following food groups were analyzed: melons & strawberries were one group, tomatoes were another, broccoli & Brussels sprouts were the third, spinach & greens were another, then carrots & squash and finally dried apricots, prunes & raisins.

Assuming IQ type mutagens are the dominant genotoxic risk factors the following predictions regarding cancer risk could be made. Although strawberries have little inhibitory activity, melons do offer moderate to strong protection and are consumed much more often so the melon/strawberry group would be expected to offer a moderate to large reduction in cancer risk. Although tomatoes have only a little activity when cooked, when raw they offer strong protection. As tomatoes are usually consumed raw they could be expected to offer a large reduction in risk. The broccoli/Brussels sprouts group would be expected to offer a moderate reduction. The effect of Brussels sprouts is moderate and heat stable, whereas raw broccoli offers strong protection, but cooked broccoli is largely inactive. Spinach offers strong protection either raw or cooked, but is rarely consumed. Other greens offer little benefit. Spinach/greens could be expected to offer only a small reduction in risk. Carrots/squash offer no significant activity either raw or heated and so one would expect no reduction in risk. No dried fruits were tested, but raw apricots offer a little activity, prunes offered moderate protection while grapes were inactive. Assuming drying does not alter the activity one would expect a small reduction from this group.

Here are results of the survey compared with predictions:

Reduction in Risk with Greater Consumption Group Survey IQ Prediction

melon/strawberry 70%

moderate/large tomatoes 50%

large broccoli/brussels sprouts 20%

moderate spinach/greens none

small carrots/squash none none

dried fruits 40% small?

There appears to be significant agreement between the predictions based on the degree of protection from IQ type mutagens and the actual epidemiological results, with the only anomaly being for dried fruits. Since this prediction was based only on fresh raw fruits it may be possible that the process of drying itself enhances the protectiveness of these foods.

1 In Vitro Effect of Vegetable and Fruit Juices on the Mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidao[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline 443-459 Vol.32 No.5 1994 Food Chemical Toxicology

2 Increased Green and Yellow Vegetable Intake and Lowered Cancer Deaths in an Elderly Population 32-36 Vol.41 1985 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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