ISSN 0964-5659

Longevity Report 36

Volume 4 no 36. First published December 1992. ISSN 0964-5659.

Looking Good Douglas Skrecky

Letters: Gangster Rap, Investing in Immortalism, Trees, Falling on Hard Times, Acetone, 4th Cryonics group

PICS News John de Rivaz

It Does not Work Yvan Bozzonetti

Vitamin E May Prevent Brain Damage Douglas Skrecky

On the Beech Yvan Bozzonetti

Time Machine Construction Douglas Skrecky

French Prison Sentences Set Serious Precedent for FDA John de Rivaz

The Agathis Austalis (Kauri) Story. Yvan Bozzonetti

Some Thoughts on Ageism Chrissie Loveday

How You Could Take it With You John de Rivaz

Looking Good

by Douglas Skrecky



Sad to say one's popularity with members of the opposite sex can be influenced by mere physical appearance. So with that sobering thought in mind let us explore ways of alleviating common skin and hair problems.



Wrinkles:



We judge a person to look "old" when their skin is wrinkled. Contrary to popular belief wrinkling of skin is not a function of chronological age as such, but instead depends almost exclusively on the amount of cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation and cigarette smoke1. The "youngest" part of a person's package is usually the one he sits on. Preserving your looks need involve no more than quitting smoking and the daily application of a sun block to areas that are commonly exposed to the sun. For those who already suffer from wrinkles there is good news. The skin has some capacity for regeneration and provided sun exposure is avoided existing wrinkles will tend to vanish over time, although it may take a decade for significant effects to be evident2. It is never too late to begin using a sun block -or to quit smoking.



If a faster erasure of wrinkles is desired daily use of Retin-A cream can reduce wrinkling in as little as 4 months3. Unfortunately Retin-A also irritates the skin so it should not be used except under a physicians care. Retin-A now appears to be obsolete as alpha hydroxyl acids such as glycolic and lactic acid have now been demonstrated to be as effective as Retin-A at erasing wrinkles, yet do not possess its side effects4. Some preliminary research indicates that topical application of vitamins may be even more effective at restoring skin with the leading contenders being vitamin C and vitamin B55,6 A vitamin C based cream called Transdermal C is available from BioCare7. For a quick wrinkle fix try applying a glycerin based cream. Glycerin will absorb water from the skin and temporarily increase skin tightness8.



Acne:



Acne is caused by excessive sebum secretion9. Sebum formation appears to be under hormonal control and unfortunately there does not yet exist an effective method for reducing it10. However there do exist a number of treatments which are effective in suppressing the formation of acne lesions. Both topically applied vitamin A acid and benzoyl peroxide are effective for this purpose11,12.



Vitiligo:



The skin depigmentation found in vitiligo has proved resistant to treatment with any prescription drug. Finally out of desperation some researchers tried using a 2 milligram daily folic acid supplement as a treatment and found to their great surprise that it cured this condition13. Thus the cause of vitiligo was discovered to be due to a folic acid deficiency. The moral to this story seems to be that you should eat your folate rich vegetables just like your mother said you should.



Dry Skin:



The most effective moisturizers are those which contain at least 5% petrolatum8. A 2 gram daily oral gelatin supplement also appears to help14. If dry skin is a more serious problem creams incorporating high doses of alpha-hydroxy acids will cause the dry top layers of skin to exfoliate, leaving the moist deeper layers intact15.



Dandruff:



For over 50 years the consensus of medical opinion was that the cause of dandruff was not due to a yeast infection. Starting in 1984 that consensus was abruptly challenged by one Sam Shuster who called into question the competence of his colleagues and all but condemned them for misinterpreting their own experiments. It was good old Sam against everyone else for awhile. Does the dear reader have any guess as to who won? .... That's right good old Sam knocked out the opposition, won the fight and overturned 50 years of medical consensus. By 1988 the "new" consensus concedes that most cases of dandruff are in fact caused by the pityrosprom ovale yeast organism16,17. Coal tar, selenium sulphide and zinc pyrithione based shampoos are commonly used to treat dandruff.



Male Pattern Hair Loss:



Why, oh why do us men lose our hair as we age? This indignity appears to spare women, but short of castration there is little that men can do currently to avoid becoming bald, although some have claimed that regular shampooing delays this process. Topical application of minoxidil causes a very modest amount of hair regrowth in some younger men18. Some regrowth has also been noted when the scalp is periodically subjected to a weak pulsed electrostatic field19. If men can not at present entirely avoid male pattern baldness at least we can now understand why this destiny is forced upon us. A plausible hypothesis runs as follows: A balding pate may act as a genetically controlled thermoregulatory compensation to offset the insulating capability of beards and other body hair in men20.This might seem to beg the question of why men grow beards while women do not, however the answer to this question appears to be quite obvious. Why are men such hairy beasts? Like the colourful plumage of certain species of male birds, beards and body hair exist because females like them. The first appearance of body hair in primitive man may have alerted females to the fact of his virility. Thus the beard became a ticket to reproductive success for males. Unfortunately women, ever fickle have since changed their minds and now balding males have to use a shaver every morning. Such is life.



1 Cigarette Smoking:Risk Factor for Premature Facial Wrinkling 840-844 Vol.114 No.10 1991 Annals of Internal Medicine

2 Preventing, Delaying and Repairing Photoaged Skin 419-420 Vol.41 1988 Cutis

3 Topical Tretinoin Improves Photoaged Skin 527-532 Vol.259 1988 Journal of the American Medical Association

4 Alpha Hydroxy Acids:Procedures for Use in Clinical Practice 222-228 Vol.43 1989 Cutis

5 Vitamin C Eyed for Topical Use as Skin Preserver 12-17 March 1991 Medical World News

6 Effects of Supplemental Pantothenic Acid on Wound Healing: Experimental Study in Rabbit 578-589 Vol.41 1985 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

7 The address for Biocare is 54 Northfield Road, Kings Norton, Birmingham B30 1JH, England

8 Considerations in Selecting a Moisturizer 512-515 Vol.39 1987 Cutis

9 Current Aspects of Cosmetic Science. XIII. The Pathogenesis of Acne 63-66 Vol.101 1986 Cosmetics & Toiletries

10 Sebosuppression 140-146 Vol.102 1987 Cosmetics & Toiletries

11 Lack of Effect of Topical Retinoic Acid on Sebum Excretion Rate in Acne 503 August 27,1988 The Lancet

12 Comparing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% Benzoyl Peroxide on Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris 664-667 Vol.25 No.10 1986 International Journal of Dermatology

13 Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 in Vitiligo: A Nutritional Approach 39-42 Vol.50 1992 Cutis

14 Oral Treatment of Skin Dryness 77-80 Vol.103 1988 Cosmetics & Toiletries

15 Control of Keratinization With Alpha-Hydroxy Acids and Related Compounds 586-590 Vol.110 1974 Archives of Dermatology

16 The Aetiology of Dandruff and the Mode of Action of Therapeutic Agents 235-242 Vol.111 1984 British Journal of Dermatology

17 Dandruff, Seborrhoeic Dermatitis and Pityrosporum Ovale 87-91 Vol.103 1988 Cosmetics & Toiletries

18 Topical Minoxidil in the Treatment of Male Pattern Alopecia 191-197 Vol.7 No.6 1987 Pharmacotherapy

19 The Biological Effects of a Pulsed Electrostatic Field With Specific Reference to Hair 446-450 Vol.29 No.6 1990 Pharmacology and Therapeutics

20 Beards, Baldness and Sweat Secretion 39-46 Vol.58 1988 European Journal of Applied Physiology

Letters



From Mr Andrew Blackall



It's been some months since my last penned offering of verbal diatribe, in fact some years since I last read your most enjoyable magazine on the subject of longevity. With his usual kindness Paul from Life Plus has kitted me out with a recent copy and a pair of magnificently oddball specs that would grace even the most outlandish gangster rap video. Gangster Rap by some colonial gentleman called Bob was indeed an island of nonsense in an otherwise enjoyable journal (May 92).



With a sub culture of crime, drugs, prostitution, AIDS, syphilis and "Bob knows what else", it is not reasonable to assume that individuals want to reach old age, yet alone eternal youth.. The only reason these people would want eternal youth is to destroy the society in which we live as wall as the confirmed state of juvenile paranoia in which they live. Statistically these people are the products of broken homes and are themselves a quirk of nature.



MC Hamer is not a gangster rapper.



Can anyone really want a sub culture of this nature to align itself with the quest for the eternal (or at least extended)? Give it some credit, Bob!



Black culture now brings us "Gangster Rap", or does it? I dare say in 1977 most punks would have said "yeah" to grooving on for ever, but even that did not belong to the ghetto of violence spread by inner city black kids (looking suspiciously middle class to me) crooning for a better future? Gangster Rap is a napalm substance destroying what many people, black and white, have sought for many decades: respectability. If anyone else wants to die without trying not to, that sure won't bother me! The gangster rap element is the crude scum that always wants to live on but to destroy anything it rejects. It sounds a bit like death or glory to me and you can stuff that crude insult to humanity.



Bob doesn't mention the fact that Rap is an offshoot of Gay Disco! The hypothesis if the "let's have fun and burn and sod what's to come" lifestyle. Sure, most Gangster Rappers might reject these roots, but roots they are.



My idea of life is to be content, respect myself, my friends and anyone else who thinks and acts in a way that aids the mix of life. I as a searcher for the life eternal, on Earth, through the use of pills, potions, powders and lotions know that they help tune my engine but the fuel of life powers me. I am not an angry young man in the sense Bob's rappers are but I can express anger - anger is not a major part of my being! Anger is a reaction not a reason.



The people who answered Bob's friend's requests for information will not be the kids from the ghetto. They will be middle class black Americans, just ordinary kids and enjoying their time. Gangster Rap is a sub class of music formed by deprived no hopers - the success stories only becoming middle class Americans! Selling out!



Bob sounds well meaning enough but that sure don't drive credibility to mind. The Beastie Boys are not Gangster Rappers either (sod this, let's talk about something interesting!) Where can I get some aminoguanidine?



Strangely a certain Mr Hitler (no, I'm not kidding) had a much more liberal view of supplement laws (Read Adolf Hitler: The Medical Diaries) than do the E.C. Oh my God! Could Jacques Dellors be a Gangster Rapper!! (Shortly taking a couple of deep breaths.)



I thoroughly enjoyed the topic of anhydrobiotics, and would like to read a bit more (quick drink.) Longevity Report 31 page 17. Sorry Zehse, just because these perverts are deprived children only means they will abuse someone else's. Wouldn't hemlock plant do the trick?



Anyway, I must reach for an envelope. Keep up the good work!



From Mr John Zube



A few days ago I though that it might be worthwhile to list and number all the life extension ideas and approaches that have so far been proposed. This might simplify referencing if it became a list that is common to all researchers. It might lead to some cross fertilisation amongst people who so far were too specialised. Language barriers might be bridged in this way. The numbers might be used by an international archive and information services that keeps files in one form or another under these numbers and, for pay, offers copies of them.



One of the most urgent needs, as I see it, would be designing and organising the private financing of longevity research, via better salesmanship to highly speculative but strongly motivated investors. Potentially, everyone is a customer. Actually in a country like, for example, Germany, only one in a million or even less has been involved or shown some serious interest so far. Seeing that salesmanship for many kinds of goods and services has been developed into a fine art and that huge sums are gathered for heart and cancer and other special health researches, the record of longevity enthusiasts is still deplorable in this respect.



Where legislation is not an obstacle, a highly speculative security issue might be possible - or several independent ones, each with its special branch of research, with some investment rust notes combining them.



Provision ought to be made that enough an incentive (but not too much) sticks with the fund raisers. And the investors ought to be given a survey of current or intended research and of separate accounts for them, amongst which they could choose.



The only advantage of investing to the investor in short term should be limited, eg subscriptions to periodicals and research reports. However promised dividends promised should begin only in the future when research begins to pay off. Benefits could possibly be spread to investors in unsuccessful longevity fields, since success depends on a broad spectrum attack.



The ultimate dividend should consist of transferable options to priorities or discounts in longevity good and services offered. Size and length of the investment should be taken into consideration. Investing in your own future and that of your children and grandchildren could be given a new meaning.



Sufficient funds to attract and hold many researchers to this field are unlikely to come from governmental health ministers and their budgets. When dependence on such funds remain, then, I am afraid, real advances may be hushed up out of fear that they might increase the current old age and social welfare budget.



It took about 150 years before some popular books appeared on the financing of productive co-operatives. Should it take as long until the first title appears on the financing of private life extension research?



An investment trust of this kind ought to try to combine all the copyrights and patent rights of the members, if they do not agree on their abolition in this sphere, anyhow.



The first assets it could offer would be all the literature on that subject that was ever written, at least on microfiche, disks and printout and photocopies.



One thing seems certain to me: little research can be funded by the sale of books, newsletters and vitamin and mineral pills alone. Perhaps Pearson and Shaw have gone as far as possible in this direction and according to a report by a Los Angeles friend, they rather overwork themselves with this approach. Printers, bookshops and the Post Office probably make more out of this than they do.



Few researchers are good publicists, fund raisers and salesmen. Division of labour is required here too.



From Mr Yvan Bozzonetti



Here are some personal activities from the preceding issues. I have:

- Read a paper in Scientific American and another in Nature about the free radical molecule NO. It is a neuromediator and an intermediate between nerves and smooth muscles in the digestive tract and blood vessels. Without it, muscles cannot relax. I conclude than antioxidants such vitamin E, scavenging NO must trouble digestion and temporarily raise blood pressure. To help, use NO producing molecules, such as nitrous compounds derivatives, exploited to reduce pain in coronary diseases.

- Found two 12 acre fields in the south of France to cultivate long living trees with interesting biochemical products.

- Established in the same region an experimental plot to test winter survival of Agathis Australis, Podocarpus Totara, Dacrycarpus Dacrydioid and Podocarpus Ferugineus.

- Started planting slip cuttings of Dacrydium Cupressinum, D. Bidwillii and male/female D. Franklinii. (The longest living specie in the world). To my knowledge, I am the sole person in modern civilization to work on these species with a medical and longevity objective.





From Mrs Joy Cass

I wonder if you heard Ludovic Kennedy and David Jenkin, the controversial Bishop of Durham on Radio 41? It was, for me, perfect listening. For those two great men agreed to differ and in consequence brought to life the advice of Jesus "Love your enemies". Ludovic kennedy believes in euthanasia, and the Bishop doesn't believe in the virgin birth.

Actually Jesus himself wasn't renowned for tactful sayings - "whited sepulchres" for instance is pretty galling isn't it?!

Your definition of God as "the whole of everything" delights me and goes well with my definition "absolute understanding". And the latter terms tells us, does it not, about forgiveness of sin. The term Jesus used "EVIL as you are" suggests we can try to be a bit better. "Its the thought that counts", so of course God, Freud, Job, Moses, Dr Anthony Clare (in the psychiatrist chair fame) - all the leaders recognise the human frailty. Its only "the others" who don't!

And when people say about other people who have fallen on hard times "Well, that makes me feel better" I realise there's absolutely no hope for those who utter this!2

[Mrs Cass then describes how the Devil is reported in The Bible to be a fallen angel etc.] One understands a little more, I think, of free will. We do have to choose. No wonder the old saw "The road to hell is paved with good intentions." So often one has gone for something considering it to be right (in the sense of "righteousness") and come a terrible cropper. No one can tell consequences or even if they exist as catalysts.3 No, say what one will, Jesus' words "love one another" is the one and only phrase that gives the benefit of the doubt. In charity, (a much more sensible word than love - "love" is very selfish, well it includes "jealousy", which makes for ambition and one-upmanship.) All for nothing. All and nothing. None of us know.4

The awful pain I have been having has been occasioned by obligatory "over-walking" I had to put up with5 in hospital. But when one is being treated for thyroid, one has no business to be on two sticks, still after the smashed if replaced hip (1990). The thyroid is now being treated with 2, 5mg of haloperidol daily. I have overcome my anger and am grateful for my ability to transform any lingering irritation into deep dreamless sleep for hour on end.

I am interested in cooking and take endless trouble to make meals look nice. (I've always thought the taste buds react well to presentation!) But I'm so slow now and without the full use of my right foot and leg I can't drive the car, which is a great shame as I love it so. And in spring 1993 I shall be celebrating 60 years of accident free driving.



Comments

1. The Bishop of Durham doesn't believe in an afterlife, which makes him particularly interesting to immortalists. The radio programme also contained the amusing item that he received a letter suggesting that he should rot in hell for his beliefs - signed "A True Christian".

2. I wholeheartedly agree with this. It gives no comfort to be told "there are people worse off than you are". No doubt some do gooders would find some way of offering this "condolence" to people who are dead and annihilated for good. However cryonicists do have the motto that "Being in cryonic suspension is the second worst thing that can happen to you. Being dead is the worst."

3. Quantum mechanics? We do carry a model of the world around us, in our heads, and so we can to a limited extent foretell the consequences of our actions.

4. None of us know the future, but by logical argument one can make very educated guesses. Good examples of this are immortalist literature, such as Prospect of Immortality, Man into Superman, and Engines of Creation. All of these books make predictions of the future based on logical argument. If the reader takes time to understand the argument, he may feel that some of the details will be different, but this is very different from an act of faith, which is just making an effort to believe something unlikely out of desperation. The Bible, more particularly The Book of Revelations makes suggestions about the future, but these are not based on a framework of logical argument, but are statements of ideas that have "revealed themselves" to the original writer and people who have altered this writing throughout the ages.



5. I am sorry to hear of this sad tale. Unfortunately hospitals are so overworked that they seem to treat people like this all the time. If doctors had hours limits like bus drivers or pilots I am sure medical care would be a lot better. However doctors would then take home less pay and there would be more of them, and therefore more competition for the top posts. The profession as a whole has always liked the present situation with too few doctors. But those that do get through are paid well once they get consultants jobs, and there is a fairly good chance of any individual getting one of those later in life. With a more doctors, this chance would be much lower. Given that charlatans can often work as doctors for many years before they are caught, it would seem that most doctors are grossly overtrained for what they do. If any reader has and ideas that may improve Mrs Cass' lot, then I am sure she would be pleased to hear.



From Professor R.C.W. Ettinger



A few quick reactions to #35:

"How to Failure Proof Cryonics":

I admire Mr. Skrecky's initiative and familiarity with many sciences, but his suggestion to circulate acetone or alcohol through the body (to remove ice) brings me up short. After all, just a tiny bit of alcohol in the living brain produces serious damage (partly by dissolving fatty nerve insulators); soaking everything with large amounts of alcohol--let alone acetone--seems virtually certain to produce major damage. One might speculate that this would still be less serious than available alternatives, but we certainly need more information.



"Too Many People Have Died":

Mr. Brakeman says that people on the political left are usually opposed to religious fantasizing. My impression is that they only oppose other people's styles of religious fantasizing; I would say that having a really deep commitment to any social ideology constitutes religious fantasizing. Communism, for example, is essentially a religion--and secular humanism isn't really much different, with major fealty due to "posterity.".

On a more positive note, I was intrigued to note Mr. Brakeman's indication that a Fourth Group is being formed, the nucleus of a possible new organization that will (in his opinion) be more viable than the existing ones. And we will be glad to see his promised future analysis of the contrasts--which we have been trying to get him to tell us for years.

The "abolitionist" label might also be a fine public relations ploy. Nice idea!



PICS NEWS



PICS is a lonely hearts listing sheet for immortalists run by Longevity Books. It has been inaugurated with a special offer whereby people who join will pay no fee until there are twenty names. I also said that the terms will be varied if there is an imbalance of the sexes. Out of 34 enquirers we have had only two women, and out of all these only four men had joined by 28 October. Therefore it looks as though the terms will now be that we will have ten women listed before we start charging.



However now I have got the determination to make the project succeed, I have taken out further advertising in Prevention, a US magazine aimed at promoting good health, to appear in January. It has a readership of nine million women. Surely 32 or so of them will reply?! An additional advertisement will be taken in New Body which has a readership of 300,000 young women readers, which will appear in February.



There is likely to be a hiatus in the advertising in Longevity. In order to control costs, I reduced the wording in our advertisement to:

SUPERLATIVE deal for immortalist lonely hearts PICS, Westowan, Truro TR4 8AX, England

The order was sent early in August. A month later I received a letter from Russell E. Palmer Inc, their advertising representative, stating that the wording was unacceptable but the original copy (which cost three times as much) would do. I assumed that "Superlative" was the word he didn't like, and replaced it with "great". Another couple of months passed, and I assumed that they must be printing it. Then I got a letter stating that he didn't like "lonely hearts", together with notification that, during the period of delay, the price per word had gone up. I wrote again suggesting alternative wording, and I have also sent a letter to the offices of Longevity suggesting that they employ the same agency as Prevention.



Prevention's agency is National Information Corporation, 12536 Spring Hill Drive, Suite E-5, Spring Hill, Florida 34609 U. S. A.. They, unlike Russell E. Palmer, offer a quick service, allow payment by credit card, and they will communicate by fax - it combines the speed of the telephone without the cost and inconvenience, although it is about twice as costly as airmail for small messages.



For those readers of Longevity Report who are female and single: the men so far listed seem highly intelligent and interesting people, and live in widely spaced parts of the world. There is one in London. Why not send for details of PICS now?

Internet Addendum: PICS never really got off the ground, although we now have 5 men and one woman. If there is further interest now Longevity Report is on the Word Wide Web, an Internet version could be reanimated.



Fountain of Youth in Hawaii



PICS received a communication from the Rev Paul Colbert, of 78-7154 Kaleioppa Street Kailua Kona Hawaii 96740 USA detailing "a comprehensive program to reverse the aging process." The program is in three parts, working on the physical body, the emotional body and the mental body. It takes place at an ocean front facility on Keauhou Bay, Hawaii, and fees are $1,800 including meals. Classes have a minimum of six people and a maximum of 12. Board is $30 to $60 per day depending on accommodation chosen. Further details are available from Rev Colbert on request.



This appears to have common ground with the Eternal Flame, including rebirthing and special breathing patterns previously promoted for this purpose.



It does not work...



by Yvan Bozzonetti



That is what I retain from the paper: "The Cause of Aging", written by Douglas Skrecky (Longevity Report 33 and The Immortalist, July 1992 issue). Yes, hormones are one element, damaged proteins and sugars by free radicals are another. I do not forget chemical, ionisation, thermal and quantum certainly cause damage to RNA and DNA. Cell differentiation system, methylation of DNA and similar anti-cancer processes have too a part to play in aging. We cannot reduce it to a single thing simply because we have only a word for the sum of all these process.



Mr Skrecky says: Vitamin C does not work. Who say it must suppress aging? All that it can do is well known: It fights scurvy, a chronic form of which promotes cardiovascular diseases. To suppress such illness may give us ten more years to live, this is not the infinite longevity, otherwise why neglect it?



Vitamin E does not work: Yes, there is a rapid saturation level with that product. Vitamin E is the D-L alpha tocopherol, plants use a mixture of many tocopherol molecules as anti-oxidants. Personally, I take alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols (all contained in the Kodak Tenox-GT 1 oil). Taking them before a strenuous effort make a difference in well-being after it. I need no statistics to continue to use them. The short term benefit pays for itself, if there are more long term dividends, well, I accept them.



BHT, BHA and the like do not work. Are they taken with products such as TMG 15 to neutralize the lowering of oxygen in the blood they induce? Even so, they generate other free radicals as by-products. The new free radicals are less reactive than the original ones, there is the benefit if BHT intake matches well the quantity of products to destroy. If there is too much of the anti-oxidant, there is a net toxic effect. I am against animal experiments and there is a good illustration: Rats produce a good quantity of vitamin C and so, they can detoxify the BHT byproducts. If we do not take 18 g per day of that vitamin, BHT may well be a net toxic product in humans. A really good experiment must use human cells in culture, not animals with particular physiology without connection to our own.



A way to benefit from anti-oxidants is to supplement food intake with plants making them. There will be not a single product, but a full chain of chemical products to neutralize fully all free radicals and by-products coming from them. Following that way, I start to use Dacrydium foliage and bark. These trees contain, it seem, a good deal of chaperonines (protein molecular complexes able to fold in the proper way most newly synthesized proteins or denaturated ones). I have a source for guanidine, a powerful denaturating agent. It can break cross linked proteins and glycoproteins. To fold anew the molecules, we need the chaperonines from Miro bark for example. That is why I have sowed some tens of them.



Well, I have no recipe to suppress aging in all its aspects, I think I am simply on the track to get a practical solution for one aging process. I think we must not wait for others to test our ideas, knowledge or, maybe, discoveries.



From the first publication date, I assume Mr Skrecky's paper was written during the long Canadian winter. I write under the summer sun, so I may look more practical and active: a vitamin D effect I assume. Man is an African specie, not well adapted to low light level. So we must use U.V. A lamps for a good part of the year? (I do).



Editorial Comment:



I am aware of the need for high light levels, but I would warn people to consider the risks of skin cancer and cataracts with UV. There is much controversy over this issue.

Vitamin E Prevents Brain Damage



by Douglas Skrecky



For years vitamin E injections have been known to significantly reduce stroke induced damage1,2. The medical community has however not seen fit to recommend vitamin supplementation above RDA levels to patients suffering from cardiovascular disease, who may be in danger of suffering further strokes. Instead highly profitable and potentially toxic prescription drugs remain the standard treatments. This practice must be condemned for the medical hypocrisy that it is. The RDA for vitamin E was formulated under the assumption that no cardiovascular disease is present. For optimal resistance to stroke induced brain damage the RDA alone has been demonstrated to be inadequate, as increasing dietary intake of vitamin E to 12 times that of RDA levels sharply reduces the amount of brain damage induced by strokes in rodents3. Various brain degenerative diseases may also require an increased vitamin E ration as for instance supplementation appears to be effective in slowing the course of Parkinson's disease4.



No transplantation solutions to date contain any vitamin E. This would appear to be an oversight as recent research has found vitamin E to be very effective in inhibiting calcium induced damage to ischemic tissue5. Hopefully this vitamin will soon begin to be utilized in transplantation solutions as information regarding its calcium channel blocking capability slowly diffuses throughout the medical community.



Cryoprotectant solutions used by cryonics concerns also currently (at least to the knowledge of the author) do not include vitamin E. As brain preservation is of paramount concern to cryonics companies, inclusion of vitamin E in cryoprotectant solutions should become standard practice once information about its benefits becomes widely known. Brain cells incubated in vitamin E deficient culture media begin dying within hours, while vitamin E sufficient media will support their growth indefinitely6. It should be noted that ethanol can be used to solubilize vitamin E in solutions, but even when used by itself small amounts of ethanol enhance the freezing preservation of organs7.



References:



1 A Possible Role of Lipid Peroxidation in Cellular Damages Caused by Cerebral Ischemia and the Protective Effect of alpha-Tocopherol Administration 977-982 Vol.14 No.6 1983 Stroke

2 Protective Effect of alpha-Tocopherol on Ischemic Neuronal Damage in the Gerbil Hippocampus 335-338 Vol.510 1990 Brain Research

3 Postischemic Cerebral Lipid Peroxidation in Vitro: Modification by Dietary Vitamin E 1593-1601 1985 Journal of Neurochemistry

4 An Open Trial of High-Dosage Antioxidants in Early Parkinson's Disease 380S-382S Vol.53 1991 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

5 The Effect of Vitamin E Analogues and Long Hydrocarbon Chain Compounds on Calcium-Induced Muscle Damage. A Novel Role for alpha-Tocopherol? 212-218 Vol.1097 1991 Biochimica et Biophysica Acta

6 Alpha-Tocopherol Supports the Survival and Neurite Extension of Neurons Cultures From Various Regions of Fetal Rat Brain 49-52 Vol.133 1991 Neuroscience Letters

7 Freezing Preservation of the Mammalian Cardiac Explant V. Cryoprotection by Ethanol 470-477 Vol.29 1992 Cryobiology



On the beech.



by Yvan Bozzonetti



Beech trees are not known for their great longevity: they live at most 250 - 300 years. Taking a factor of five or six in biological activity, that translates into a life expectancy no greater than 50 - 60 years for an animal, nothing very special. Ordinary beeches have a slender, high trunk and, if cut at some level, they hardly give any new sprouts. They are genetically programmed to produce a single trunk and no more.



An exception comes from Irish forests. Here, grows a particular beech with many deformed trunks. It looks more as a root system in the air than a true beech. More than one thousand year ago, some of these special trees found a new place in a forest near Reims in France. The oldest trees here form a line, a clear mark of human intervention. Some small plots of such beech are found scattered throughout Europe, brought here by religious communities in the dark age.



In France, they are named Faux de Verzy (false from Verzy) or Hetre Tortillards (Knotty beeches)1. What is interesting for us and the old monks from the preceding millennia is that ordinary beeches produce viable seeds when they are sixty years old. Knotty beeches are adult at six hundreds years. Common beech produce seed every six years or so, Knotty ones have a cycle of at least sixty years, ten times longer. If they live to ten times longer, then they benefit from an extended longevity going to 2 - 3 millennia. The 1000 years old subjects at Verzy near Reims are young on that scale.



This mere longevity is not really surprising by itself. I have a lot of Agathis Australis (Kauri) with a life expectancy at least as great. On the other side, very few trees in Europe can reach such an age. Oaks can't go well beyond 1200 years, even in the best conditions. May be the old monks exploited some product from knotty beech, as bark or sap with life extension objectives. There may indeed be high antioxidant concentration here.



Where did that particular beech come from? It is not a separate species. We have only hypothesis about them. A particular mutation or some viral illness. That tree comes from an island at the limit of the islands during the last ice age. Here, beeches may have survived at the limit of physiological possibility, with very slow metabolism. In that tough environment, all or at least most animal life may have vanished. Without browser or other predator, the trees may have survived. On a larger island or a continent, animal life find always some shelters in the southern part of its territory and eat to extinction all slow growing plants. There are also pollen grains from warmer areas where no thermal selection plays a dominant role. That genetic mixing forbids any selective pressure to act.



We know, from experiments by Michael Rose2,3,4,5,6 and some others that there is a way to select genetically a population with slower than normal metabolism and corresponding longer lives. The present days work uses common fruit flies. Here, I suggest knotty beeches are a similar product done in a natural laboratory during the course of the last ice age, or may be some of its predecessors. If that process works from flies to trees, then it must works on nearly all species. It may be interesting to map the genetic content of ordinary beech and of knotty ones to see what are the differences.



If that idea is right, then the knotty form is not an illness, but simply a way to remain under the snow during the coldest period of the year. That "bad form" is then not bad at all, it turn out to be simply a factor selected by some other selective pressure than longevity, even if there are no direct link between them at genetic level. Here are some hints about experiment to disprove that idea:



If the viral illness hypothesis is correct, then it must be demonstrable by contamination. A small scale from a knotty subject grafted on an ordinary one must convert it to the "ill" form. I know of no case of that sort, maybe the experiment was never done. I think this is doubtful, knotty beech are known for their great longevity for at last one millennium, graft practice come from China and has been extensively exploited in Europe for centuries now. Many people interested by such trees must have experimented with graft, if that multiplicative way is not known, it is certainly because it falls short of the hope put in it. No nearby ordinary beech has been converted to the knotty form by contamination carried by insects, wind or direct contact. All of that point strongly away from the viral hypothesis.



The chance point mutation case is somewhat stronger. We may see it in a New Zealand Christmas Tree (Metrosideros excelsa or Pohutukawa) at Te Araroa7. There is no hint of slowed down metabolism or greater longevity. This example is too against the viral hypothesis. A virus may eventually find its way in more than one species. If it produce the same effect on development then it must act similarly on other elements such longevity. A point mutation acts on a single gene. If a single amino acid change in the DNA strand may produce such transformation in a beech, the species looks very frail towards mutation. Why then is not there a collection of known mutations in that species?



If selective pressure was indeed the key of the mystery, then indeed have a tree race worth to study with the modern genetic tools.



Notes and references:



1 Robert Bourdu and Michel Viard (1988) Arbres Souverains, Ed. du May, 116 rue du Bac, 75007 Paris, France.

2 Michael R. Rose (1992) Evolutionary Genetics of Aging in Drosophila; AAAS Annual Meeting, 1333 H Steet, NW, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

3 E.W. Hutchinson, A.J. Shaw and M.R. Rose (1991) Genetics 127: 729-737 (April 1991). "Quantitative Genetics of Postponed Aging in Drosophilamelanogaster. II. Analysis of Selected Lines.

4 Michael R. Rose (1990) Growth, Development & Aging 1990, 54, 7-15. Should Mice Be Selected for Postponed Aging

5 David E. Harrison (1990) Growth, Development & Aging 1990, 54, 16. Should Mice be Selected for Longevity?

6 Michael R. Rose and Joseph L. Graves, Jr.(1989) Journal of Gerontology Vol. 44 2, P. B27-29. Minireview: What Evolutionary Biology Can Do for Gerontology.

7 S.W. Burstall and E.V. Sale (1984). Great Trees of New Zealand, Ed. A.H. and A.W. Reed Ltd., 68-74 Kingsford Smith Street, Wellington 3 N. Z.









Time Machine Construction



(from Vol.17 Spring 1992 issue of Canadian Cryonics News)

by Douglas Skrecky



A key requirement for long term storage of human remains is a secure container to insure that nothing goes amiss in the deceased's long journey to the future. Such a "time machine" would require a construction material that is impervious to both air and moisture, is resistant to mechanical stress and does not corrode. Plastics fail on the first count, borrosilicate glass and ceramics are brittle and so fail on the second count, and finally most but not all metals fail by corrosion due to ground water. For example aluminum and lead are dissolved in acid or alkaline solutions, copper and nickel are attacked by sulfides while steel simply rusts in aerated water. The only easily available metals which do not readily corrode are stainless steels, nickel alloys and titanium.



Stainless steels derive their corrosion resistance primarily from the incorporation of chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen1. Nickel is added to stainless steels in order to eliminate brittleness2. The primary vulnerability of stainless is due to the chloride ion. In low chloride waters even inexpensive 18% chromium (type 304) steels average corrosion rates of less than 0.000025 millimetres per year3. At this rate it would take about 40,000 years to penetrate just 1 millimetre into the metal. Unfortunately this situation changes dramatically when stainless is buried at sites close to the seashore as after just 4 years of burial type 304 plates were virtually perforated4.



Chromium alone is not enough to ensure that stainless steels will not corrode. Molybdenum and nitrogen must also be incorporated to achieve that. For instance outdoor atmospheric exposure of stainless steels for 32 years at a rural test site yielded no evidence of corrosion. However when these same metals were tested at a sea shore beach front test site great differences were observed. Type 304 with no molybdenum rusted more than type 316 with 2% molybdenum, while type 216 with 2% molybdenum and 0.33% nitrogen remained inert5.



Recent research has reduced the effective price of stainless steels by increasing their yield strength so that less metal is required. The most widely used high strength stainless alloy is duplex 2205, which contains 22% chromium, 3% molybdenum and 0.2% nitrogen. This alloy is roughly equal to type 216 in general corrosion resistance6. Further addition of another 3% chromium plus 2% copper results in a newer alloy called duplex 255, which is able to remain inert even in seawater, while yet being only slightly more expensive than type 316 stainless7. A bargain, indeed.



What about nickel alloys and titanium? Some bacteria have the nasty habit of attacking metal surfaces and this has produced some unexpected structural failures. When tested with bacteria, type 316L was found to be quite resistant and corroded even less than the extremely expensive nickel base alloy Inconel 6258. However the situation is quite different with titanium as no cases of corrosion from ambient temperature seawater have ever been reported with this metal. The only known failures involve hydrogen induced embrittlement when titanium was joined to another corroding metal9. A titanium casket would thus have to be constructed solely of that metal.



Suitable materials for time machine construction are limited at present to titanium and some of the more highly alloyed stainless steels. By using these materials in conjunction with permafrost burial there is a substantial probability that the body of the deceased will eventually attain to a posthumous fame thousands of years from now which would dwarf all others.



References:



1 Effects of Alloy Composition and Microstructure on the Passivity of Stainless Steels 376-389 Vol.42 No.7 1986 Corrosion

2 Nickel Steels in Arctic Service 46-49 October 1987 Materials Performance

3 Long Term Corrosion Tests in Rondout Reservoir, New York 27-33 May 1978 Materials Performance

4 The Galvanic Coupling of Some Stainless Steeks to Copper - Underground 16-20 October 1975 Materials Performance

5 Appearance and Corrosion of Stainless Steels in the Atmosphere 47-54 February 1988 Materials Performance

6 Practical Guide to Using Duplex Stainless Steel 57-62 January 1990 Materials Performance

7 Duplex Alloy 255 in Marine Applications 63-67 October 1990 Materials Performance

8 Ranking Alloys for Susceptibility to MIC - A Preliminary Report on High-MO Alloys 55-57 January 1991 Materials Performance

9 Use of Titanium in Petroleum Refining 48-52 September 1990 Materials Performance



French AIDS Prison Sentences Set

Serious Precedent for FDA



An item in New Scientist of 31 October relates how three former French health officials were convicted in the last week of October by a Paris court on a charge of fraud for neglecting scientific evidence and allowing HIV-contaminated blood products to be given to haemophiliacs in 1985. They delayed the introduction of heat treatment to blood to kill HIV.



By delaying the introduction of treatment to destroy the virus in donated blood, they caused 1,500 haemophiliacs to be contaminated with the disease. 256 have since died of AIDS.



Mr Michael Garretta, was given the maximum sentence of four years imprisonment and a fine of 60,000. Of even greater interest is that Garetta is in the USA, and a warrant has been issued for his arrest. Presumably this means that the offence with which he has been found guilty in Paris is also a valid offence in the USA.



This appears to me to mean that if scientific evidence is available at a particular moment in history and officials ignore it and disallow it to be used in practical treatments, then they can be liable for death and injury caused, even if the case is brought years in the future. It doesn't seem to be a defence that these scientific arguments are often much clearer with hindsight.



Also, it is not merely a nameless government department that is held to blame, but the people working in it. Individually, they can be fined and sent to prison. This surely must be music to the ears of the Life Extension Foundation, for example, who are in conflict with the US FDA over very similar issues.



Needless to say, the French officials say that their consciences both professional and moral are clear, and they plan to appeal. It is interesting to me that they make a distinction between "professional" and "moral".



The Agathis Austalis (Kauri) Story.



by Yvan Bozzonetti



That big tree native from New Zealand lives for more than two millennia. How does it manage to do that? Many species synthesize some conservative products with polymeric properties such as rubber or resins. Others make powerful antioxidants. These molecules not only prolong cellular life, they too interfere with cell digestion by fungus, bacteria or mould. Viral attack alsoe uses free radicals neutralized by antioxidant. No insects can digest wood by themselves. They use bacteria in their digestive tract to do this. For a tree, fighting bacteria is a way to get ride of most insects in the environment. Even after cell death, such woods do not decay. All of that describes very well wood from a tree such as Rimu. Because antioxidants are small molecules, they readily get their way in any organisms. To turn that tree into a medicine looks fairly simple: Eat it!



A. Australis displays another behaviour. The inner part of old trunks is hollow, the wood decays under the ecological pressure of mould, bacteria and so on. Clearly, there is no large quantities of antioxidants in that stuff. What then protects that vegetation from old age? There are two possibilities, both may be true.



First, there may be a very efficient control and repair system of the DNA molecule in the cell's nucleus. In that case, Kauri cell work always as animal cells under the pressure of interferon molecules. When an organism undergoes a viral aggression, it need to tighten its genetic control to forbid viral replication by the cell machinery. May be A. Austrralis produce continuously a large dose of very efficient control and repair proteins. At cell death, proteins deteriorate and cease to protect tissues from decay.



The second possibility ask for a very important chaperone production. Chaperones are proteins helping others to fold in the proper way when they are assembled. With time, proteins deteriorate, stick to each other and lose their original, active form. Chaperones put them back on the juvenile productive track.



Some chaperones are relatively small proteins and get readily in any cells. It's simple in that case to turn them into drug with healing properties. The bark of Miro tree fits well that model. That seems not be the case for A. Australis.



There remains open only one other possibility: Kauri chapeones are large protein complexes and they cannot escape the cell domain. If cells are broken, then everything gets free, alas "everything" include digestive enzymes normally sequestered in lysosomes, a kind of small vesicles inside cells. Lysozymes, the lysosome enzymes, digest in some seconds everything in the broken cell.



The only way to solve the problem is a denaturating agent such guanidine-HCl. That product unfolds all proteins and so suppress all biochemical activity. Chaperones do exactly the reverse: they fold anew proteins, getting them back on the functional track. If guanidine unfolds every protein it meets, each chaperone acts only on a particular class of proteins. In a cell, there must be some chaperone for each protein kind in the general compartment, that includes their own components. On the other hand, lysozymes in their small lysosomes, do not need such activity and never meet chaperones of the main cell domain.



There must be no lysozyme chaperones, and so, no protection against guanidine activity for them. Adding two to three mols of guanidine to agathis cells before broking them must prevent any chaperone destruction without denatuating too much of them. A simple centrifugation allows them to recover the useful product. A simpler way for amateur users allows us to bypass the centrifugation step. The Kauri cells and guanidine are first mixed with a good quantity of biological matter. When lysozyme regain some activity by guanidine dilution, they are too far away from most chaperones to act on them. Chick peas slow even more that destructive activity and block any digestive action in the stomach if the product is eaten. To use these chaperones in our own body, there remain a last barrier to overcome: the small intestine membrane. To permeabilise it, a detergent must enter into play. Most of them are very toxic, only two are safe for that use: biliary salts and citric acid. The second looks better: it is cheap and do not put more cholesterol in the blood as biliary salts do.



A. Australis is not known as a medicine tree in Maori tradition. It seems ready to see why: an efficient use asks for guanidine, chick peas and citric acid, they are not components ready to find in a traditional culture. Even if local substitutes may be found, to mix them to get a precise result cannot be a chance discovery. Only someone with an understanding of biochemical activity can deduce the needed steps.



All of that rests on a big IF: If Kauri longevity is build up on chaperones. What if its main tool is a DNA protection system? This is a very interesting scientific question; on the other hand, to benefit from it we need exactly the same steps and the same products as before.



Because that process consumes a large amount of energy, growth rate becomes very slow in that case. This is not the Agathis Australis way of life. So, it rests most probably on chaperones to live more than two millennia, not on a particularly efficient DNA protection system. In fact, such a system must interfere with the DNA folding on Histone proteins. That part of the biological set up has undergoes nearly no evolution in the last 600 millions years. It seems safe to say than no species in the world can display a life extension based on a particular DNA repair system. What can be done at this level is only amplify the activity of molecular systems found in every cell. These activities are then always very costly. If we don't see that effect, then there are no special repair activity. The chaperonines remain then the only open possibility for Agathis Australis.



Cryonics is too a potential kauri user. Here, protection of chemical structures in the cells seems an essential objective. Without oxygen, cells run out of energy and cannot pump out calcium ions. When calcium invades the inner compartment of cells, it breaks the lysozyme wall and allows digestive enzymes to destroy nearly any structure. Calcium channel blockers can slow the process as do the ATP injection and a low temperature. On the other hand, guanidine, with its denaturating property neutralize any enzymatic activity. Its a convenient, simple and cheap way to suspend indefinitely any chemical degradation coming from inside.



The price to pay for that security comes at the end of the conservation period: any reanimation process must include a nanotechnology step to refold in the proper way all useful proteins. Kauris offer it nearly cost free, they are the first nanotechnology laboratory working for a cryonics return ticket.



Some interested person may find hard to buy some products described here, in that case let me know, I have everything at hand.



My seeds supplier is: PROSEED New Zealand, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, New Zealand. (They have a large and interesting catalogue).

Some Thoughts on Agism

by Chrissie Loveday



Are we becoming an agist society? Or perhaps we have already become one. I heard someone on the radio complaining that he had been turned down as being too old to become a curate at 45. This lead to scores of others 'phoning in to say they had been turned down for endless things and had been given the push in favour of the young. What I want to know is, what is young?



I shall always remember being asked how old I thought a friend of my mother's to be. Haven't we all been asked that awful question at some stage in our lives? The first thing we learn is that only people who consider themselves young looking, ask that question. Thus we will think how old they look, subtract a few years and then plunge in, protesting that we are no good at estimating people's ages. There is either a smile of pleasure as the ploy works and the guess is several years on the minus side or a grunt of, "Well I haven't been too good lately and it obviously shows".



My mother's friend was extremely subdued when I suggested about 100. I think I learned later that she had been sixty or so.



Consider a five year old child's experience. A ten year old has lived twice as long. A forty year old has eight times the life experience. I've reached the stage when policemen, doctors, solicitors ... you name it ... they all look far too young to be given the responsibilities they have. But yet, am I really any older inside than I was when I went back to work after my sons grew up? Oh yes, the outside is distinctly more worn but my thoughts still scramble for attention, I still have so many things to do, to learn and to begin thinking about. I've only recently started making very positive steps towards life-extension, just in time I say, as there's a whole heap of things to start on yet!



I find it interesting to consider other cultures and their attitude to ageing. During a number of trips, I made a special point of looking for "typical" ethnic types. I realised that in some Asian countries, there seemed to be no-one about my age. There were loads of gorgeous looking young girls, in their teens and early twenties but then they seemed to disappear and re-emerge some years later as old ladies, amply proportioned and with little apparent ambition to look even passably attractive. With great interest, I visited Latin America. Away from the big cities and amongst the country people, I realised that the indigenous natives all seemed to look the same. They developed from children into adults, apparently over-night! The girls reached maturity and once there, they looked the same for most of the rest of their lives. I really couldn't tell whether someone was seventeen or forty, forty or sixty.



Granted, once one knows a little about a person, it becomes easier to make a few calculations and come up with a realistic estimate of an age. For some more affluent folk, paying for youthful looks is a distinct possibility. The Joan Collins's of this world can maintain a terrific veneer and lots of others achieve glamour, all be it at a price. For me, it would have to be something pretty instant (and pretty dramatic too, no doubt) for me to cope. I have far too much to do to ever devote time to making myself look more glamorous! Still, as long as my sons phone to tell me they've got tickets for me to go to a pop concert with them, I shall know I'm still young where it matters ... inside. When I reach one hundred and fifty, then it may be time to give thought to my appearance and even growing up a bit.

How You Could Take it With You

by John de Rivaz



After a certain amount of difficulty, I have at last obtained a copy of the brochure of the Reanimation Foundation. This is an organisation based in the European republic of Liechtenstein, which is closely allied with Switzerland. Liechtenstein relies on Switzerland for its currency, postal service, foreign ministry and army. However otherwise it offers considerable financial freedom, including that to have trusts in perpetuity.



The legal profession in Britain in the Middle Ages developed the system of wills and probate now used in most countries, as a means of extracting wealth from the rich merchants of the time. The idea of leaving assets to someone far down the line of generations was developed as a counter to this, and as a means of maintaining family wealth. Not to be outdone, the lawyers then introduced laws that subsist to this day, limiting the individual's freedom to control his own wealth after his death much beyond nominating someone then alive to whom it may be bequeathed. This was achieved by making all trusts of limited duration.



This affects any cryonicist wanting to set up a fund to grow in value until he is reanimated and then revert to him. For example, if it takes 300 years for reanimation, and funds can be invested to produce a real rate of return of 3%, then $10,000 will grow to $(10,000 x 1.03300) = $71 million. But lawyers have made it impossible to hold such a fund - except in Switzerland, or Liechtenstein.



Another method of extracting funds from individuals (apart from taxation and a self serving legal system) is inflation. Many times in recent history the after tax return from savings has been negative. Switzerland (and therefore also Liechtenstein) has a record of a very stable currency. Therefore relatively volatile currencies like the dollar and pound will fall against the Swiss Franc with time. But if you put your funds in Swiss Francs and withdraw them after a period of time, you will get more dollars or pounds to compensate for inflation.



The Reanimation Foundation has seven members on its board of directors, including three lawyers from Liechtenstein, three cryonicists from the USA and one officer of a major Swiss bank.



Anyone who can spare $10,000 can donate money to the foundation's General Reanimation Fund. If you have $100,000 or more, you can have your own Personal Reanimation Account. In either case, withdrawals can be made at any time prior to cryonic suspension. In the case of the General Reanimation Fund as soon as the individual is suspended the assets are released to the general fund.



There are some issues about which the leaflet is not clear.

1. If withdrawals are made before suspension, does interest still accrue?

2. If a person goes into suspension with assets in the General Reanimation Fund, does he still get his funds back plus interest when he is reanimated?

3. The leaflet mentions assets such as real estate. Could an individual use the Foundation to manage his home as a residential letting business until his return?



Nevertheless, this looks to be an interesting idea. If the $10,000 account pays back with interest it is highly likely that this will be all that is necessary to re-establish a very good standard of living without the compulsion to work. (However most immortalists are not the sort of people to do nothing - such would rapidly become boring for all eternity. However the ability to choose is an important freedom which money can buy.)



Of course there are other variables. Optimistic estimates suggest that someone suspended may only remain so for 60 years, when $10,000 will "only" grow in real terms to $59,000. To get tens of millions out over a 60 year period, you would need to put millions in. However it is more likely that people suspended now will be in suspension longer compared to people who are middle aged now and are suspended later. Therefore an old person now will have a tidy fortune for reanimation if he invests $10,000 or thereabouts.



Although the mechanical (ie nanotechnological) costs of reanimation are likely to be low, there may be expensive requirements for re-education and psychological treatment. As these could be labour intensive, they may consume a

substantial part of one's reanimation account if they are not covered by the payment to the cryonics organisation. Anything that involves individual use of human beings has risen far higher than the general rate of inflation. Particular examples are law and surgery, whereas drugs are cheaper in real terms. (Although the costs of the diagnosis of disease and prescription, ie choice of medicine, are higher.)



Another difficulty might be that people with no reanimation account are funded for reanimation by the cryonics society, but those with one are made to draw on it.



However as reanimation accounts of various kinds come into existence the problems will no doubt be addressed and dealt with, and competing products in the marketplace will eventually produce the ideal solution.



The rules of compound real interest suggest that the average person using a low cost cryonics organisation should have ample means to provide both for his suspension, reanimation and any conventional bequests.



Anyone with an interest in The Reanimation Foundation is invited to write to

Asset Preservation

16280, Whispering Spur

Riverside

California 92504

U. S. A.

This company provides public relations for the Reanimation Foundation.



Longevity Report invites readers to report on any interaction with this or any other similar organisation.

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